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   2017| October-December  | Volume 29 | Issue 4  
    Online since February 15, 2018

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Oral Submucous Fibrosis – The Indian Scenario: Review and Report of Three Treated Cases
Kamala Rawson, Ruchika K Prasad, Admaja K Nair, Juliet Josephine
October-December 2017, 29(4):354-357
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a premalignant condition mainly associated with the practice of chewing betel quid containing areca nut, a habit common among south Asian people. It is characterized by inflammation, increased deposition of submucosal collagen, and formation of fibrotic bands in the oral and paraoral tissues, which increasingly limit mouth opening. In this paper, we review literature on OSF and the different stages of the disease to help dentists make an early diagnosis and reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. We also present three cases after treatment with biweekly intralesional injections which resulted in improvement of the subjective symptoms.
  31,122 1,224 1
Minor Salivary Gland Neoplasms of Palate: Case Series with Differential Diagnosis and Review of Literature
Kamala Rawson, Basavaraj Kallali, Arun George, Admaja K Nair
October-December 2017, 29(4):321-324
Minor salivary gland tumors are infrequent, accounting for 10–15% of all salivary neoplasms. The most common intraoral site is palate, accounting for more than 50% of cases followed by lips, cheek mucosa, tongue, and floor of the mouth. Despite their relatively low frequency, minor salivary gland neoplasms represent a heterogeneous group of lesions, with a broad range of histological types and growth patterns imposing a diagnostic dilemma for the clinicians. Here we are reporting four cases of minor salivary gland neoplasms, all presented as palatal swellings of similar characteristics, and a review of literature is done for the same.
  7,110 576 1
Trigeminal Herpes Zoster: Early Recognition and Treatment –A Case Report
Upender Malik, Mysore K Sunil, Chandini Gupta, Mamta Kumari
October-December 2017, 29(4):350-353
Herpes zoster is a clinical manifestation of the reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus infection. It is a self-limiting viral infection characterized by painful vesicular eruptions with erythema typically presenting as unilateral dermatomal rash of considerable morbidity, especially in elderly patients. It can be fatal in immunosuppressed or critically ill patients. We present a case of a 52-year-old male who presented with herpes zoster infection involving the V3dermatome, focusing upon early intervention in the management of this condition.
  6,920 325 3
Immunosuppressants in Oral Medicine: A Review
Aravinda Konidena, Surender Sharma, Deepa J Patil, Avani Dixit, Rajesh Gupta, Mansimran Kaur
October-December 2017, 29(4):306-313
Immunologically mediated mucocutaneous diseases constitute a large group of oral mucosal disorders that compromise the quality of life of patients due to their chronicity. The treatment of these disorders should not only be directed to bring relief from symptoms but also towards treating the underlying immune dysregulation, prevent recurrences, and preserve organ integrity and function. These disorders are largely treated by immunosuppressants. Challenge in treating these disorders lies in existing comorbidities, frequent relapses or short disease-free intervals, and long-term use of medication and their complications. This review focusses on newer immunosuppressants and their role in oral mucosal disorders.
  4,459 937 1
Influence of Handheld Mobiles on Parotid: A Cohort Study
Gracelin E Ranjitha, Ravi David Austin, Sarvathikari Ramasamy, Chinnappa Saravana Bharathi, Deepthi Angeline, Sakthivel Sambasivam
October-December 2017, 29(4):254-258
Introduction: Mobile phones generate heat and radiofrequency radiation. The parotid gland is one potential target, because mobile phones are pressed against the side of the face where the gland is located. Aims and Objectives: To compare the effect of mobile phone radiation on parotid gland volume, systolic velocity, salivary flow rate, and protein concentration between the dominant and the nondominant side of mobile phone usage among heavy mobile phone users. Materials and Methods: Ultrasonography of the superior lobe of parotid was performed bilaterally to measure gland volume. Systolic velocity of the external carotid artery in gland was calculated bilaterally using color Doppler imaging. Saliva flow rate was measured bilaterally with modified Schrimer strip. Carlson-Crittenden device was used to collect 0.5 ml saliva sample from the duct and biuret assay was done to determine the protein concentration. Settings and Design: A cohort study was conducted with 50 undergraduate students of a dental college based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Pearson correlation test was used to correlate and compare changes in the parameters of parotid gland and analyzed to a significant level of 0.05. Results: The volume, systolic velocity of blood flow of the external carotid artery, the salivary flow rate, and protein concentration of the parotid gland were significantly more by 11.9, 18, 23, and 8%, respectively, on the dominant side than the nondominant side of mobile phone usage. Conclusion: The study emphasized that prolonged mobile phone usage causes biological changes in parotid gland.
  4,854 491 -
Role of Dentists during Mass Disasters: A Review
Kiran Vallamchetla, Kotya N Maloth, Vani Chappidi, Stuti Goyal, Sridevi Ugrappa, Srikanth Kodangal
October-December 2017, 29(4):371-373
Mass disasters cause damage, ecological disruption, and loss of human life on a massive scale. The reasons for these ranges from natural causes such as volcanic eruptions and earthquakes to secondary human causes like wars. Such massive disruption of life demands help from people belonging to various sectors of healthcare, providing pre-identified, structured, and systematic aid to the victims of the disaster. This review article highlights the role of a dentist in such massive disasters. The dentist not only provides first aid to the victims but also aids in the identification of human remains.
  4,382 651 -
Determination of Proximity of Mandibular Third Molar to Mandibular Canal Using Panoramic Radiography and Cone-beam Computed Tomography
Darshana S Nayak, Shubhasini A Raghavan, Praveen Birur, Shubha Gurudath, Gurushanth Keerthi
October-December 2017, 29(4):273-277
Objectives: Position of inferior alveolar canal with respect to an impacted third molar reveals certain radiographic signs, but three-dimensional relationship to the canal can be provided with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The purpose of this study was to determine which radiographic signs on panoramic radiography indicate a true relationship on CBCT. Materials and Methods: Forty samples with signs or symptoms of impacted mandibular third molar and panoramic radiograph showing signs of a close relationship with the mandibular canal as described by Félez-Gutiérrez et al. were included in the study and subjected to CBCT. Radiographic signs on panoramic radiography were compared with the relationship on CBCT. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-square test. Results: Twenty-one samples (52.5%) showed darkening of the apex, which was the most frequent type of radiographic sign of a close relationship on panoramic radiography. Twenty-three samples (57.5%) revealed a true relationship on CBCT. Darkening of the apex and narrowing of the canal were the signs most frequently associated with a true relationship. On CBCT, coronal and axial sections better predicted a true relationship. Conclusion: This study showed that the presence of any of the radiographic signs cannot definitely predict a true relationship; however, the presence of a close sign on panoramic radiography is often associated with a true relationship to the canal.
  4,280 571 1
Ectopic third molar in maxillary sinus: A rare case report
Abhishek Sinha, Anuj Mishra, Anusha , Pooja M Sinha
October-December 2017, 29(4):341-344
Ectopic tooth eruption in a non-dental area is a rare entity, and is most common in oral cavity. There have been a few case reports of teeth erupting in mandibular condyle, chin, palate, coronoid process, and maxillary sinus. Ectopic tooth in the maxillary sinus are found incidentally on routine radiological examination, same time they can be symptomatic and associated with pathologies usually dentigerous cyst or odontogenic keratocyst. Facial pain, purulent rhinorrhoea, epistaxis, headache, swelling, and epiphora-related naso-lacrimal duct obstruction can also be seen. By Caldwell-Luc procedure the ectopic teeth within the maxillary sinus are often removed. In this study, a case of ectopic maxillary third molar tooth on right maxillary sinus is presented.
  3,445 333 1
An Unusual Association of Bifid Condyle, Eagle's Syndrome and Ely's Cyst: A New Kid on the Block
Rupam Sinha, Biyas Bhowmik, Soumyabrata Sarkar, Tanya Khaitan
October-December 2017, 29(4):314-316
Bifid condyle is a rare anatomic modification of mandibular condyle caused by developmental or traumatic reasons, and often diagnosed incidentally on routine radiographic examination. Eagle's syndrome (ES) occurs when an elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament causes recurrent throat pain or foreign body sensation, dysphagia, or orofacial pain. On the other hand, Ely's cysts are focal subchondral cysts resulting from bony remodelling and osteoarthritic changes. Here, we report a case depicting an interesting combination of all the abovementioned entities in a single patient.
  3,254 295 -
Nutrient Canals of the Alveolar Process as an Anatomical Feature for Age and Gender Determination
Prashant Gupta, Shantala R Naik, Alpana Tiwari, Madhuri Gupta
October-December 2017, 29(4):358-361
Introduction: Nutrient canals are anatomic structures of the alveolar bone through which neurovascular elements transit to supply teeth and supporting structures. Dental identification using nutrient canal of the mandibular alveolar process as the most compelling anatomic feature for antemortem–postmortem radiographic comparison can be potentially used in forensic identification. Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the correlation between the appearance of nutrient canals as a potential clue to age and gender determination. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients, 60 males and 60 females, were selected in the 11–60-year age group. Systemic disease, especially hypertension, was ruled out in the patients. Periapical radiographs were taken from mandibular anterior cuspid central incisor region because nutrient canals are commonly observed in this area. Data obtained was analyzed by SPSS software and various statistical analysis were carried out. Results: Study revealed nutrient canals to be commonly seen in females compared to males. Males had maximum canals in the age group of 21–30-year whereas females in the age group of 31–40 years had the maximum canals. Conclusion: Significant correlation was seen between the gender and nutrient canals whereas no significant correlation existed between the age and presence of nutrient canals.
  3,046 321 -
Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Western Maharashtra: A Prospective Study
Kamala A Kamble, Sanketh S Guddad, Ajay G Nayak, Ashwinirani Suragimath, Abhijeeth R Sanade
October-December 2017, 29(4):282-287
Aim and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the number, types, and locations of oral mucosal lesions in patients who attended our outpatient department. Materials and Methods: The patients were divided into four groups based on age: 17–24 years, 25–34 years, 35–44 years and >44 years old. Clinical oral examination was done with diagnostic instruments using the Color Atlas of Common Oral Diseases as a guide for diagnosis. When clinical features were not diagnostic, a biopsy was undertaken. The lesions were divided into 7 major groups – normal variants, tobacco related, tongue lesions, potentially malignant disorders and oral malignancies, reactive lesions, inflammatory and pigmented lesions. Results: Among 1500 outpatients, of the 587 (39.1%) patients diagnosed with oral mucosal lesions, males were 416 (70.8%) and females 171 (29.1%). The age range of the patients was between 17 and 80 years. The overall prevalence of oral mucosal changes or lesions was 39.1%. The most commonly affected age group was >44 years. Overall, tobacco-related lesions (35.9%) were the most frequently detected conditions, followed by tongue lesions (16.1%), premalignant and malignant lesions (13.9%), inflammatory lesions (12.6%), normal variants (9.5%), reactive lesions (7.6%), and pigmented lesions (4.0%). Conclusion: The results of the present study provide important information about the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions among patients seeking dental care. The study provides baseline data for future studies about the prevalence of oral lesions in the general population.
  2,684 525 6
Aspergillosis of Maxillary Sinus in an Uncontrolled Diabetic Patient: A Case Report
Bhavna Barthunia, Arushi Kshetrapal, Yashwant Rao, Shaik M Asif, Kasper D Hundal
October-December 2017, 29(4):337-340
Fungal infections affecting the paranasal sinuses are common. They can affect normal as well as immunocompromised individuals. Aspergillosis and mucormycoses are the most common fungal infections involving maxillary sinus. They can manifest in two forms – noninvasive or invasive infection. These infections when properly diagnosed can be treated at the earliest without causing much tissue damage. Here, a noninvasive form of aspergillosis in an uncontrolled diabetic, elderly female patient is presented. This article also explains the etiopathogenesis, clinical and radiological features, as well as the management of aspergillosis.
  2,695 283 -
Correlation between Dental Maturity by Demirjian Method and Skeletal Maturity by Cervical Vertebral Maturity Method using Panoramic Radiograph and Lateral Cephalogram
Madhusudhanan Mallika Mini, Valsa Thomas, Tinky Bose
October-December 2017, 29(4):362-367
Introduction: Radiographs are effective tools in assessing the stages of bone maturation in dentistry. The cervical vertebral maturation method is a proven effective tool in assessing the adolescent growth spurt than hand-wrist radiographs in an individual. Assessment of dental calcification stages are a reliable method for determining dental maturity. Panoramic imaging can be used as the primary imaging modality for assessing maturity if a correlation can be found out between tooth calcification stages and cervical vertebral maturation stages. This study was conducted to determine the correlation between dental maturity stage and cervical vertebral maturity stage and to estimate predictor variables for cervical vertebral maturation stages (CVMS) stratified by gender in a tertiary hospital setting. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among patients accessing orthodontic care in radiology outpatient clinic, Oral Medicine and Radiology department, Government Dental College Thiruvananthapuram for a period of 15 months. Participants were selected between the ages of 8 and 16 years. Panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms were used to determine dental maturity stages using Demirjian method and CVMS using Bacetti and Franchi method, respectively. Results: One hundred patients (males = 46, females = 54) were included in the study; the spearman rank order correlation revealed significant relationship. The correlation ranged from 0.61 to 0.74 for females and 0.48 to 0.51 for males. Second premolar showed highest correlation and canine the lowest for both females and males. Stage G of mandibular second premolar signifies the pubertal growth period in this study population. By ordinal regression model, G stage of second premolar was found to be a significant predictor in males and stage H followed by G and F in females for the age group of 12–14 years. Conclusion: Dental maturation stages were significantly correlated with CVMS. The development stages of mandibular second premolar had the strongest correlation with cervical vertebral maturity in both males and females. G stage of mandibular second premolar can be clinically used as a maturity indicator in the pubertal growth period. Moreover, G stage of second premolar can be used as a significant predictor for the age group of 12–14 years in both males and females.
  2,579 361 1
Genomic Alphabets of Saliva as a Biomarker in Oral Cancer
Govindraju Poornima, Talkad Subbaiah Mahesh Kumar
October-December 2017, 29(4):300-305
Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers in the developing world with high mortality rate despite the recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. The major reason for low survival rate is late diagnosis. Salivary diagnostics is an emerging field along with the application of genomics aiding in the early detection of oral cancer. These genomic alphabets of saliva may serve as a timely, cost effective, noninvasive diagnostic medium. This article aims to discuss the role of genomic alphabets of saliva in the diagnosis of oral cancer.
  2,037 418 2
Prevalence of Oral Manifestations Among HIV-Positive Patients Undergoing Antiretroviral Treatment Visiting Chamarajanagar District Hospital: A Cross-Sectional Study
Sathyaprakash Dongade, Zainul Mohammed Wajid Sermadi, Rangaswamynayaka Manjunath, Chandramohan Priyadarshini, Mudigere Subbaiah Jayapala
October-December 2017, 29(4):288-291
Introduction: The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) among the HIV/AIDS patients has reduced the frequency of the oral lesions, especially oral candidiasis, necrotizing periodontal conditions, Kaposi's sarcoma, hairy leukoplakia, and recurrent oral ulcers due to reconstitution of the immune system. Aim: This study is to determine the effect of ART on the oral mucosa of HIV/AIDS patients clinically. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and seventy-three patients who are on ART were examined for oral manifestations. Results: Oral candidiasis was manifested in 64% of patients, oral pigmentation in 44.5% patients, 43% with gingival or periodontal infection, 33% with reduced salivary secretion, and 35% with dental caries. Conclusion: It was concluded that high incidence of candidiasis may be due to the habits or history of tuberculosis, pigmentation, and xerostomia due to the medication.
  2,105 340 3
Image Guided Virtual Autopsy: An Adjunct with Radiographic and Computed Tomography Modalities - An Important Tool in Forensic Identification
Shalu Rai, Deepankar Misra, Kuber Tyagi, Mukul Prabhat, Purwa Gangwal
October-December 2017, 29(4):368-370
The forensic examination of dead bodies is very helpful in order to identify the person, cause of death, gender, and solving the mysterious cases. It includes a number of techniques, out of which autopsy is the primary investigation that is performed in every medicolegal case. Because of mutilation technologies, traditional autopsy technique is most disturbing in terms of emotions and rituals of relatives. The use of radiology in forensic science comprises performance, interpretation, and reporting of radiographs that is helpful in detecting those changes that are not clinically visible. Forensic radiology plays an important role for identification of humans in mass disasters, criminal investigations, and evaluation of cause of death. The introduction of radiological modalities in autopsy techniques is a complementary tool for forensic identification and is known as virtual autopsy. The advance imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used in virtual autopsy in order to visualize and reconstruct the internal organs to know the site, type, and depth of injury. This review elaborates the role of maxillofacial imaging in image-guided virtual autopsy.
  2,062 347 1
Comparative Morphological Analysis of Precancerous Lesions and Conditions by Clinical Examination, Chemiluminescence, and Toluidine Blue
MunBhawni Bagga, Anand C Kumar, Dipti Bhatnagar
October-December 2017, 29(4):249-253
Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma accounts for up to 50% of malignant tumors in Asian countries and is very common in India, Pakistan, and Taiwan. Currently, the most effective way of combating oral cancer is by early diagnosis followed by adequate treatment. As visualization is the principal strategy used to assess the patient's lesions at risk of malignant transformation, any procedure which highlights such lesions aids the clinician. Aim: The present study was carried out to compare the usefulness and validity of clinical examination, chemiluminescence, and toluidine blue in assessing the precancer. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 100 subjects, 50 each of oral leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis. Evaluation of suspicious lesion was carried out by clinical examination, chemiluminescence, toluidine blue with the gold standard of histopathological diagnosis. The chemiluminescent and toluidine blue examination were evaluated by two observers who are unaware of the clinical examination. Results: Chemiluminescence was found to be better than toluidine blue and clinical examination by both the observers (P < 0.05). Chemiluminescence was found to be better in visualization of leukoplakic lesions by both the observers (kappa >0.900). The visualization, exact extent, borders, and surface texture of lesions were revealed accurate by chemiluminescence followed by toluidine blue and clinical evaluation (P < 0.05). The sensitivity and specificity was more reliable for chemiluminescence (75 and 54.7%) than the toluidine blue (57.4 and 44.1%). Our observations suggest that the mild and severe dysplasia of the lesions were well appreciated by chemiluminescence. Conclusion: Chemiluminescence and toluidine blue cannot be compared with histopathology as these are adjunctive aids in early diagnosis of oral precancer and cancer. Hence their adjunctive value is of great importance to be used as a chair-side investigation and for mass screening of oral cancer.
  1,936 469 1
Evaluation of the Role of Creatine Phosphokinase as a Biomarker in Acute Myocardial Infarction Patients
Priyal Agrawal, Tushar Phulambrikar, Siddharth K Singh, Anjali Gupta
October-December 2017, 29(4):263-266
Introduction: The study hypothesized that salivary creatine phosphokinase (CPK) can act as a biomarker in diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) as an alternative to serum CPK, which is a contributory effort towards noninvasive procedures to detect the disease. Aims and Objectives: The main aim of our study was to propose the normal range of salivary CPK in patients with AMI, and to explore the relationship between serum and saliva levels of CPK with comparison of salivary CPK as a biomarker between healthy individuals and patients with AMI. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out including 144 participants who were divided in two main groups – 72 normal healthy individuals and 72 with AMI. CPK levels were assayed in serum and unstimulated whole saliva of AMI and controls by International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) method. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed using unpaired t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient test. Results: The normal proposed range of salivary CPK of patients with AMI was found to range from 11.30 to 184.50 U/L in males and 20.17 to 69.00 U/L in females. The mean salivary and serum CPK was significantly higher in patients with AMI as compared to healthy individuals with P < 0.001. Saliva CPK concentration correlated significantly with serum CPK of AMI and healthy individuals with r = 0.247. Conclusion: Salivary CPK can be used as an alternative to serum CPK in patients with AMI.
  1,923 242 -
Comparison Between Conventional Radiography and 3D Volumetric Imaging for Location of Mandibular Canal: In Vivo Study
Rakashree Chakraborty, Aarti Panchbhai, Rahul R Bhowate, Sourav Sen
October-December 2017, 29(4):267-272
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the visibility and location of mandibular canal in the mandibular posteriors using orthopantomography and digitalized volumetric tomography. Material and Methods: Twenty-five patients were included in the study with mandibular posterior edentulous areas, where visibility and location of mandibular canal was assessed using orthopantomography and digitalized volumetric tomography. Both parameters were assessed at the mental foramen, at 1 cm, 2 cm, and 3 cm posterior to mental foramen. Results: The results obtained showed that the mandibular canal was more clearly visible at the mental foramen at 1 cm and 2 cm posterior to the mental foramen using digitalized volumetric tomography, which was statistically significant (P = 0.000). At 3 cm posterior to the mental foramen the visibility of the mandibular canal did not differ among the techniques (P = 0.297). The location of the mandibular canal was obtained in superoinferior dimension in orthopantomography and superoinferior and buccolingual dimension was measured in digitalized volumetric tomography where the mandibular canal was located more inferiorly and lingually in mandible. Conclusion: Digitalized volumetric tomography ( DVT) is advantageous than orthopantomography (OPG) for visibility and location of mandibular canal. The precise location of the mandibular would help in planning for implant placement and other interventions in mandibular posteriors.
  1,804 275 1
Salivary Glucose and Oral Mucosal Alterations in Type II Diabetic Mellitus Patients
Sameeulla Shaik, Raviraj Jayam, Vijaykumar Bokkasam, Suresh Dirasantchu, Suman S Venkata, Sai Praveen
October-December 2017, 29(4):259-262
Aim: The study was undertaken: 1) To assess salivary glucose (SaG) levels in diabetic and nondiabetic subjects and to determine if saliva could be used as a noninvasive tool to diagnose and monitor Type II diabetes mellitus. 2) Correlation of SaG levels with serum glucose (SeG) levels in nondiabetic and diabetic patients. 3) To correlate the oral manifestations of diabetes mellitus with serum and SaG levels. Material and Methods: Both fasting and postprandial serum and SaG levels were analyzed from 70 Type II diabetic and 70 nondiabetic subjects. The detailed examination of oral cavity in relation to periodontal and dental status and subjective oral complaints were recorded. The obtained values were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The mean fasting salivary glucose (FSaG) was 5.469 + 2.347 mg/dL and 7.634 + 4.468 mg/dL in nondiabetic and diabetics, respectively (P = 0.000) and postprandial salivary glucose (PSaG) was 6.434 + 2.111 mg/dL and 8.736 + 4.962 mg/dL in nondiabetic and diabetics, respectively (P = 0.000). The positive correlation was found between SeG levels and SaG in diabetics (P = 0.000). Strong positive correlation was observed between SeG and SaG with oral manifestations in Type II diabetic patients (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Saliva can be a useful tool in regular monitoring of “already diagnosed Type II diabetics” (by their SeG levels) rather than diagnosing subjects with “unknown status of diabetes mellitus.” Strong positive correlation exists between SeG level and SaG level with oral manifestations in Type II diabetic patients.
  1,698 355 -
My Dreams Coming True
BK Venkataraman
October-December 2017, 29(4):247-248
  1,608 293 -
Extrafollicular Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor: A Case Report
Nilofar S Zaidi, Lata M Kale, Sneha H Choudhary, Vishwas Kadam
October-December 2017, 29(4):329-332
Odontogenic tumors are a group of heterogeneous lesions. Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor (AOT) is a benign, hamartomatous, slow-growing lesion, which is usually located in the anterior maxilla and is more prevalent in females. Although the follicular type is more frequently described in literature, here we report a case of extrafollicular type of AOT in the maxillary anterior region in a 16-year-old female.
  1,660 235 -
Maxillary Calcifying Epithelial Odontogenic Tumor Presenting at a Postextraction Site: A Case Report and Brief Review of Literature
Talla Harshavardhan, Sushma Naag, Dorairaj Parthiban Umamagesh, Esther Priyadarshini
October-December 2017, 29(4):333-336
Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor (CEOT) was described as an entity by Danish pathologist Jens J. Pindborg in 1955. It is a rare benign odontogenic neoplasm forming 0.4–3.0% of all intraosseous tumors. Also known as Pindborg tumor, it is traditionally described as an uncommon, benign neoplasm of exclusively epithelial tissue of origin. Much of controversy exists in the nature of origin of this tumor; there is no consensus on the originating cells of CEOT. Some pathologists suggest that it is derived from stratum intermedium layer of enamel organ in the tooth development stage; others favor a different hypothesis in which this tumor may arise from the remnants of primitive dental lamina in the initial stages of odontogenesis. Most of the cases reported involve the posterior mandible than the maxilla in the ratio of 3:1. The mean age is 30–40 years with no gender predilection. The present case throws highlight on the unusual site of the lesion, i.e. presenting in the maxillary molar region as an ulcerated area in the area of extraction socket. The study also attempts to briefly emphasize the concepts of CEOT and also revives the review of literature.
  1,584 243 2
Cone Beam Computed Tomography Analysis of Incidental Maxillary Sinus Pathologies in North Indian Population
Sangeeta S Malik, Aarfa Nasim, Ravi Prakash S Mohan, Nagaraju Kamarthi, Sumit Goel, Swati Gupta
October-December 2017, 29(4):278-281
Introduction: Maxillary sinus can be visualized in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional images. Computed tomography (CT) is considered the gold standard method for the examination of maxillary sinus. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) addresses the limitation of CT and provides many dental advantages. It can provide valuable knowledge about the pathology with limited exposure and low cost compared with other imaging used for diagnostic purposes. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study is to analyze the prevalence of pathological changes in maxillary sinus of asymptomatic cases using CBCT for diagnostic purposes. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study evaluated 231 patients for incidental maxillary sinus pathologies. Pathological findings were categorized as mucosal thickening, polypoid mucosal thickening, radiopacification, and no pathological findings. Evaluation of pathological findings was done using factors of age and gender. Results: The present study showed 86 cases with maxillary sinus pathology and 145 cases with no pathological findings. Patients with maxillary sinus pathology were mostly diagnosed with mucosal thickening on both sides. In right maxillary sinus, 45 cases (52.3%) showed mucosal thickening, and on the left side 36 cases (41.9%) were diagnosed with mucosal thickening. Among 86 cases reported, 20 right maxillary sinus (23.3%) and 25 left maxillary sinus (29.1%) showed no signs of pathology. Conclusion: The incidental maxillary sinus pathologies are highly prevalent in asymptomatic patients. Therefore, oral radiologists should be aware of these incidental findings which will help in early diagnosis and treatment of disease.
  1,520 302 1
Nonexpansile Unicystic Ameloblastoma: A Rare Case Report
Supreet Jain, Salona Kalra, Ravleen Nagi, Sumit Tiwari
October-December 2017, 29(4):345-349
Ameloblastoma is the most common benign odontogenic tumor that has the potential to grow into a large size. Unicystic ameloblastoma (UA) is a variant of the solid or multicystic ameloblastoma. It is a rare (relative frequency 5–22%) benign, locally invasive odontogenic tumor of young age that mimics clinically and radiographically as an odontogenic cyst. Radiographically it may present as unilocualr or multilocular with cortical plate expansion. Conventional radiograph has less advantage to determine their extension into soft tissue. Hence, conventional tomography, cone-beam computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging may be used to determine expansion, root resorption and relation with adjacent structures. It has low recurrence rate after conservative therapy. Here, we present a rare case of nonexpansile UA with an unusual presentation in a young male patient.
  1,441 225 -
Secondary Manifestation of Allergic Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis on Tongue: A Rare Case
Bhawandeep Kaur, Sarfaraz Padda, Rajat Bhandari, Rajandeep Brar
October-December 2017, 29(4):317-320
Bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (BPA) most commonly complicates the course of bronchial asthma and cystic fibrosis. The clinical presentation of allergic BPA (ABPA) is very similar to pulmonary tuberculosis, and signs and symptoms are usually poorly-controlled asthma, hemoptysis, and expectoration of mucus plugs, malaise, and fever. Intraoral presentation of aspergillosis is relatively a very rare condition, and the most commonly affected sites are the gingivae, followed by maxillary sinus, hard plate, soft plate, and tongue. Here, we are presenting a rare case report of nonhealing ulcer on right lateral border of tongue secondary to ABPA.
  1,197 164 -
A Two-Year Prospective Analysis of Mandibular Fractures in Western Population of Maharashtra, India
Ashwinirani Suragimath, Girish Suragimath, Mounesh Kumar
October-December 2017, 29(4):295-299
Introduction: Trauma to the facial region causes injuries to hard and soft tissues of the face. Injuries to the maxillofacial region are increasing in frequency and severity because of the increased number of road traffic accidents (RTAs) and increased number of violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate age, gender distribution, etiology, and pattern of mandibular fractures in Western part of Maharashtra population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology for a period of two years from June 2013 to June 2015. Clinical examination of all trauma patients was done and diagnosis was made based on signs, clinical features, and confirmed by orthopantomographs. Results: Totally, 193 patients were detected with different types of mandibular fractures. Study group involved 77.2% males and 22.8% females with a male to female ratio of 3.3:1. Majority of patients were in the age group of 21–30 years followed by 31–40 years. Trauma due to RTAs were more common followed by assaults and fall. Parasymphyseal fractures were most common type followed by condylar fracture and fracture of angle of mandible. Conclusion: Males were most commonly affected by trauma than females with a predominant age group of 21–30 years. Majority of trauma were due to RTAs with parasymphyseal as most common type of fracture.
  1,126 191 -
Adenomatoid Odontogenic Tumor: Intraosseous Variant–A Case Series and Review of Literature
Lavina Taneja, Vishal Arya, Ambika Gupta, Mysore K Sunil
October-December 2017, 29(4):325-328
Adenomatoid odontogenic tumor is an uncommon odontogenic lesion with a predilection for adolescent females and anterior maxilla. There is a controversy about it being a tumor or hamartoma. It appears in three clinicopathological variants – follicular, extrafollicular, and peripheral. Here, we report three cases of intraosseous adenomatoid odontogenic tumor.
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Prevalence of Third Molar Agenesis between the Individuals of Kerala and Bhutan: A Comparative Study
Prashant Patil, Sarah Nazeer
October-December 2017, 29(4):292-294
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of the third molar agenesis in Keralites and Bhutanese groups of individuals. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seven panoramic radiographs retrieved from the department of oral medicine and radiology were analyzed, which included 55 individuals from Kerala and 52 individuals from Bhutan within the age range of 18–25 years. The prevalence of third molar agenesis between individual dentition quadrants, upper and lower jaw, and right and left side of the dentition were examined and compared between the two groups. The data was analyzed using student's un-paired t-test and Chi square test. Results: Prevalence of third molar agenesis among 107 participants was 28.9%. It was more in Bhutanese (35.29%) compared to Keralites (23.63%). The association of females with agenesis was found to be more than males in both the groups (61.1% females in Bhutanese and 69.2% females in Keralites). Third molar agenesis was found to be more prevalent in maxillary arch as compared to the mandibular arch. The association of third molar agenesis with age and sex in both the groups was statistically not significant (P > 0.05). Incidentally, we found 0.9% of second molar agenesis bilaterally in Bhutanese. Conclusion: Third molar agenesis was higher among Bhutanese as compared to Keralites.
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