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   2012| July-September  | Volume 24 | Issue 3  
    Online since October 7, 2015

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Orthodontic scars
Vinay Reddy, Vijeev Vasudevan, Gowri Sankar, AV Arun, S Mahendra, Mohammed K Khalid
July-September 2012, 24(3):217-222
Orthodontic therapy apart from its benefits also has potential risks and limitations in terms of tissue damage. Fortunately, in orthodontics, risks are minimal and infrequent However, all potential risks and limitations should be considered and addressed when making the decision to undergo orthodontic treatment. Orthodontic treatment carries with it the risk of various types of soft and hard tissue damages (e.g. decalcification of enamel, lacerations, ulcerations, temporomandibular joint disorders, etc-), apart from treatment failure in itself. If correcting a malocclusion is to be of benefit, the advantages offered should outweigh any possible damage- All preventive procedures should be considered during and after orthodontic treatment to restore the normal health of soft and hard tissues. Hence, the orthodontist should be vigilant and prudent enough in assessing and monitoring every aspect of these tissues at any given stage and time in order to achieve a healthy and successful final result.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  1,004 354 -
An in vivo study to determine the efficacy of lycopene as compared to multivitamin preparation in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis
S Sunderraj, Rohit Sharma, Vishal Agarwal, Praful Narang, YG Reddy, Amit Kumar Sharma
July-September 2012, 24(3):190-193
Objectives: The study was conducted to assess the efficacy of lycopene in the treatment of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) among patients visiting Dental College in Jaipur, Rajasthan, aged 15 years and above. Materials and methods: Twenty OSMF patients were randomly divided into two groups A and B. Group A, patients received combination of lycopene (16 mg) in divided doses. Group B, patients received combination of multivitamin preparation. Treatment outcome was evaluated on the basis of improvement in symptom score, sign score. The statistical analysis was done with SPSS software, version 11.5. Results: The result showed that OSMF patients receiving lycopene have more improvement in burning sensation and with some improvement in mouth opening. Conclusion: The observations and findings of the study clearly indicate that efficacy of lycopene is higher compared to multivitamin preparation.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  788 150 -
Candida in oral lichen planus
Santosh Gowdru Shivanandappa, IM Ali, C Sabarigirinathan, Lata S Mushannavar
July-September 2012, 24(3):182-185
Introduction: Lichen planus is a human exclusive, chronic inflammatory disease affecting skin and mucosa, particularly oral mucosa affecting the stratified squamous epithelia. Epithelial alterations in oral lichen planus (OLP) may lead to superimposed Candida infection, especially the normal flora Candida albicans. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the prevalence of Candida infection in OLP lesions. Materials and methods: Thirty-four OLP patients were subjected to clinical, mycological and histopathological investigations for the presence of candidal organisms. The data obtained was analyzed statistically using Chi-square test and Student's t-test. Results: Among the 34 patients in the study group 15 (44.11%) showed positive candidal culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium and none of the 34 histological sections of OLP showed candidal hyphae on Periodic acid-Schiff staining. No significant association of positive candidal culture with respect to symptoms and patterns of lichen planus were found. Conclusion: Candidal infection in OLP is insignificant.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  778 154 -
Well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of maxillary sinus
Vijeev Vasudevan, S Kailasam, MB Radhika, Manjunath Venkatappa, Devaraju Devaiah, TG Shrihari, M Sudhakara
July-September 2012, 24(3):250-254
Paranasal sinus malignancies are exceedingly rare. Chronic respiratory tract infections, nasal congestive symptoms and minosinusitis are much more prevalent in recent days and manifest many symptoms that overlap with those of sinus malignancy. Symptoms may be nonspecific and indolent for months or even years, leading to delay in diagnosis and consequent advanced diseased stage at presentation. The majority of maxillary sinus tumors in the literature have presented with advanced stage, resulting in generally poor survival outcomes- Hence, it is imperative that maxillofacial stomatologist should be aware of sinus pathologies, to diagnose early and it should alert them to include in differential diagnosis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  728 150 -
Burning mouth disorder
Anand Bala, Christeffi Mabel, S Manoj Kumar, S Kailasam
July-September 2012, 24(3):213-216
Burning mouth disorder (BMD) is a burning or stinging sensation affecting the oral mucosa, lips and/or tongue, in the absence of clinically visible mucosal lesions. There is a strong female predilection, with the age of onset being approximately 50 years. Affected patients often present with multiple oral complaints, including burning, dryness and taste alterations. The causes of BMD are multifactorial and remain poorly understood. Recently, there has been a resurgence of interest in this disorder with the discovery that the pain of burning mouth syndrome (BMS) may be neuropathic in origin and originate both centrally and peripherally. The most common sites of burning are the anterior tongue, anterior hard palate and lower lip, but the distribution of oral sites affected does not appear to affect the natural history of the disorder or the response to treatment BMS may persist for many years. This article provides updated information on BMS and presents a new model, based on taste dysfunction, for its pathogenesis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  729 148 -
Prevalence of mandibular third molar impaction and agenesis: A radiographic South Indian study
Ananthalakshmi Ramamurthy, Jeya Pradha, Sathiya Jeeva, Nadeem Jeddy, J Sunitha, Selva Kumar
July-September 2012, 24(3):173-176
Aims and objective: To evaluate the prevalence of (i) impaction of mandibular third molar, (ii) agenesis of mandibular third molar and (iii) angulation of impaction radiographically. Materials and methods: The sample size consists of 1,005 patients above 18 years. The orthopantomograph of the patients are interpreted for eruption/pattern of impaction/agenesis of mandibular third molar. Conclusion: Bilateral impaction of mandibular third molar is common than unilateral impaction. Agenesis of mandibular third molar is seen in 122 to 12.5% of patients. Mesioangular is the commonest pattern of impaction No sex predisposition is in prevalence of impaction. Agenesis is seen more commonly in females than males.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  617 183 -
Cytomorphometric analysis of obtained squames obtained from normal oral mucosa and lesions of oral submucous fibrosis
Shilpa B Rajesh, Satheesha B H Reddy, TK Ramamurthy, K Srinivas, Shilpa Patil
July-September 2012, 24(3):200-205
Introduction: The oral cavity is the site of many diseases. Not only dental, even medical professionals encounter a wide spectrum of oral mucosal lesions in their day-to-day clinical practice. An adequate diagnosis is essential as these lesions may vary in nature from simple to life threatening ones. As nuclear changes are the most important criteria for diagnosing precancerous and cancerous lesions and since no single structural change is diagnostic by itself, a combination of several abnormalities is always necessary. There are several studies in the literature that have used cell diameter (CD) and nuclear diameter (ND) parameters in morphometric analysis of cells. Application of quantitative techniques to smears obtained from oral premalignant lesions like oral submucous fibrosis could possibly improve the diagnostic value of oral exfoliative cytology. The cytological study of oral mucosal cells is simple, rapid and nonaggressive and relatively painless. It is thus well-accepted by patients and suitable for screening large population, for early analysis of suspect lesions. Materials and methods: Oral exfoliative smears were collected from 50 clinically confirmed cases of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and 50 control group. All cytological smears were fixed with commercially available spray fixative for 15 minutes and all the smears are stained with Papanicolaou's (PAP) stain and with computer assistance, CD and ND was assessed. Results: The results showed decrease in CD in OSMF patients when compare to normal patients and increase in ND in OSMF patients when compare to normal patients. Interpretation and conclusion: The reduction in CD and increase in ND could be early indications toward a malignant change- Application of quantitative techniques to smears obtained from the buccal mucosa of the study groups could possibly improve the diagnostic value of oral exfoliative cytology.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  580 151 -
Evaluation of mirror image biopsy for incidence of multiple premalignant and malignant lesions in oral cancer: A clinical study
Manjula A Hebbale, R Krishnappa, Anjana Bagewadi, Vaishali Keluskar, Alka Kale, Rajshekhar Halli
July-September 2012, 24(3):194-199
Introduction: To histologically evaluate the mirror image biopsy obtained from the apparently normal looking mucosa at corresponding contralateral anatomical sites to determine the incidence of multiple premalignant and malignant lesions in oral cancer. Materials and methods: Fifty patients with unilateral, single, untreated, histologically confirmed oral squamous cell carcinoma underwent mirror image biopsy from apparently normal looking mucosa at corresponding contralateral anatomical site. The mirror image biopsy specimens were subjected to histopathological examination Results: The age group of the patients ranged from 42 to 70 years with male to female ratio of 12:1. Of 50 patients, 38 (76%) revealed abnormal epithelial changes ranging in the degree from hyperkeratosis (12%), dysplasia (48%) and premalignant changes like leukoplakia, erythroplakia, submucous fibrosis, etc. (16%) in the mirror image sites. The incidence was high in males, with increasing age of the patient and duration of exposure to habits. Conclusion: Mirror image biopsies should be considered as useful diagnostic tool for early detection of premalignant changes so as to prevent further progression of these changes to oral cancer.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  579 139 -
Oral health status and treatment needs of psychiatric inpatients in Ranchi, India
Bhuvan Jyoti, Parvathi Devi Muneeshwar, Rahul Srivastava, Amool Ranjan Singh, Manisha Kiran, Jayati Simlai
July-September 2012, 24(3):177-181
Background: Oral health has an impact on general health, self-esteem and quality of life, but it often has a low priority in the context of mental health and in some phases of illness, the priority may be nonexistent Patients with psychiatric illness have poor oral hygiene than general population. Very few studies have been reported regarding the oral health among Indian psychiatric inpatients. Aim: To assess the oral health status of long-term psychiatric inpatients in a psychiatric institute and to evaluate the treatment requirements of psychiatric inpatients for maintaining the oral hygiene. Materials and methods: Psychiatric inpatients were examined and data was collected using the WHO standardized dental evaluation form in the psychiatric institute. Results: One hundred and forty-one patents (53% female: mean age: 36.56 ± 13.28 years: 47% male: mean age: 37.36 ± 12.49 years: length of illness: More than 5 years, 35.5%: less than 5 years, 84.5%) were included in the study. 73% being schizophrenics. Dental canes was found in 55.3% patients. Calculus was present in 94.3% patients. Missing teeth was found in 22.7% patients. Mucosal lesions and oral ulcers were seen in 5.7 and 1 4% of total examined patients respectively. Percentages of patient requiring extractions were 34.8%. oral prophylaxis 98.6%. conservative treatment 31.9% and prosthesis 20.6%. Age was significantly correlated with number of decayed (r = 0.294, p < 0.01) and missing teeth (r = 0.436, p < 0.01). Length of illness was significantly correlated with number of decayed (r = 0.258. p < 0.01) and missing teeth (r = 0.229. p < 0.0 1) Conclusion: Oral health is an important and integral part of health care. Members of multidisciplinary team should be encouraged to assist psychiatric patients in maintaining their oral health with good oral hygiene and access to dental treatment taking into account their special needs.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  569 103 -
Efficacy of finger toothbrush in plaque removal in a group of preschool children: A randomized controlled study
Vinod Kumar, R Murali, Krishna Madhusudan, Naveen Narasimhamurthy, Mansi Yalamalli, Pooja Hampanavar
July-September 2012, 24(3):209-212
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of plaque removal by using finger toothbrush among a group of preschool children by their mother/caretaker. Materials and methods: Thirty healthy preschool children were enrolled in the study, their mother/caretaker were provided finger and manual toothbrushes and were asked to use these brushes on alternative days for 3 weeks in order to achieve optimum dexterity with both the brushes. The subjects were recalled with their mother/caretaker, after having abstained from all oral hygiene practices for 48 hours and they were divided into two groups. A single calibrated examiner assessed all the study subjects to measure amount of plaque using Silness and Loe plaque index, before and after the tooth brushing with allotted toothbrush. The mothers/caretakers were also questioned about the comfort and convenience in using the brushes provided in the study. Results: Only 27 study subjects had returned along with their mother/caretaker for intervention Finger toothbrush and manual toothbrush groups, consisted of total 10 males and four female subjects, and eight males and five female subjects respectively. The mean plaque scores before tooth brushing for finger toothbrush and manual toothbrush were 1.43 and 1.29 respectively, and after tooth brushing 0.22 and 0.16 for the finger toothbrush and manual toothbrush respectively. Higher mean plaque index score was recorded for finger toothbrush compared to manual toothbrush but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Finger toothbrush was able to remove plaque as efficacious as manual toothbrush in preschool children of 3 to 6 years of age.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  530 94 -
The extend of root angulation in patients visiting a dental school in South Kerala: A panoramic radiographic study
PM Omal, Sebastian Thomas, Jacob John, Benley George, Aby Mathew
July-September 2012, 24(3):186-189
Objective: To study the prevalence of root angulation through radiographic evaluation using panoramic radiographs and to record the extent of angulation among various teeth. Materials and methods: Panoramic radiographs of 506 patients within the age group of 18 to 70 years (196 males and 310 females) were subjected to a retrospective study for estimating the prevalence of root angulations of various teeth- The root angulations in mesial or distal direction from 20΀ onwards were measured. To test the statistical significance, Chi-square test was used. Data analysis was camed out using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Sciences) software, version 14. Results: From the 506 conventional panoramic radiographs screened, a total of 16,192 teeth were examined- Root angulations to the mesial or distal directions were seen in 269 teeth (1.66%). Maxilla (2.43%) showed more prevalence as compared to mandible (0.89%). Individual tooth analysis revealed that maxillary lateral incisors showed the highest percentage of angulation (6.12%). Mandibular incisors, maxillary and mandibular first molars showed the least percentage of angulation (0.29%). Highest degree of root angulations among individual teeth was seen in mandibular first and second premolars (81-90΀). No statistically significant differences were observed between males and females (females: 34.8%; males: 29.1%, p=0.21). Conclusion: Root angulation was most prevalent in the maxillary lateral incisors- The highest degree of root angulation was seen in the mandibular arch, among the mandibular premolars. Angulated roots of teeth influence the planning and execution of their extraction, endodontic, orthodontic and prosthodontic treatments. Orthopantomographs may be routinely employed to evaluate root angulations in large populations and when time and economic constraints are present.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  506 116 -
Osteopetrosis: Report of a rare case
Nabikhan Ahmedkhan Athani, Mangala Parbhu Kakaraddi, Basawaraj N Kallalli, DNS V Ramesh
July-September 2012, 24(3):206-208
Osteopetrosis is a rare genetic disorder that causes generalized sclerosis of bone due to a defect in bone resorption and remodeling. Osteomyelitis is well documented as a complication of osteopetrosis. This disease can be severe and difficult to treat in the osteopetrotic patient. Prevalence is about 0.005% in general population. There are relatively few cases reported of osteopetrosis and its actual cause is not known. Dental abnormalities that present radiographically are delayed eruption and missing teeth. The overall clinical and radiographic findings of this patient were sufficient to arrive at the diagnosis of osteopetrosis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  508 108 -
Sarcoidosis of tongue
Raghuram Pitti, Ramesh Kumar, Saravana S Selvam, Eswar Nagaraj
July-September 2012, 24(3):255-256
Sarcoidosis is a rare, acquired systemic granulomatous disease, with unknown etiology affecting multiple organs and tissue. A 40-year-old male with the previous history of pulmonary sarcoidosis was screened with the clinical presentation of erythematous and nodular lesion over the tongue. Incisional biopsies from the tongue revealed the presence of 'noncaseating epithelioid cell granulomas with Langerhans type multinucleated giant cells' histopathologically. The 24 hours urine calcium examination revealed increased calcium level of 538 mg suggestive of oral sarcoidosis. The patient is periodically reviewed to study the course of the disease and identify the systemic progression at the illness
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  484 108 -
Gorlin-goltz syndrome, an incidental finding: A rare case report
Sanyasi Gandhiraj
July-September 2012, 24(3):232-235
Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is an uncommonly found rare disease which shows various possible diverse manifestations of multisystem anomalies, high degree penetration rate with variable expressiveness at least on three body systems. Cutaneous, skeletal, ophthalmological, neurological and reproductive systems are commonly affected in this syndrome. Multiple keratocysts of the jaws are the frequently developed early abnormality than any other. Hereditary autosomal dominant trait is explained as the causative factor for the development of the syndrome. In this case two major and seven minor anomalies were registered. The anomalies found in the patient were not categorized as serious life-threatening abnormalities excepting the multiple keratocysts which were treated by enucleation, curettage and Camoy's solution application. An incidental detection of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome with multisystem anomalies of a 14-year-old female patient, who had reported for the swelling in the left body of the mandible, is described in this article.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  481 93 -
Neurofibromatosis type 1 with unusual oral manifestations
Raghavendra Kini, Vathsala Naik, Ashwini Baliga, Anjali P Shetty, YR Girish
July-September 2012, 24(3):226-229
Neurofibromatosis (NF) is a genetically transmitted autosomal dominant disorder with variable penetrance and about 50% of cases representing new mutations. It is progressive in nature and one of its unique feature is the diversity of clinical expression from one patent to another and even within a family. The disease is often characterized by complex and multicellular neurofibroma. It may also lead to different complications throughout the life of an affected individual. We report a case of NF involving alveolus of maxilla and mandible causing expansion of the buccal and lingual cortical plates in a 10-year-old girl
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  471 87 -
Osteosarcoma of maxilla
NM Praveena, G Maragathavalli
July-September 2012, 24(3):236-238
Osteosarcoma is the primary malignancy of bone. Osteosarcoma of the jaw (JOS) is very rarely encountered in the oral cavity compared to osteosarcomas of long bones. Therefore, general dentist should be aware of the initial clinical and radiographic findings. The chief complaint of patients with long bone osteosarcoma is pain, whereas patients with JOS usually have painless swelling as the first sign. Lack of pain may result in delay of diagnosis. This paper documents one such case of 40-year-old female with an expansile lesion of maxilla, which was completely asymptomatic and later diagnosed as osteosarcoma.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  469 85 -
Facial plexiform neurofibroma in a 13-year-old girl with neurofibromatosis-1
Satya Ranjan Misra, G Maragathavalli, Pavitra Baskaran, Varun Rastogi
July-September 2012, 24(3):243-249
Neurofbromatosis (NF) is an autosomal dominant disorder that affects the bone, the nervous system, soft tissue and the skin. NF is a neurocutaneous condition that can involve almost any organ system existing in two subtypes. NF1 is the most common subtype and is referred to as peripheral NF. Plexiform neurofibromas are diffuse, elongated fibromas coursing along the nerves. These lesions frequently involve the trigeminal or upper cervical nerves- Though plexiform neurofibroma occurs in only 5% of patients with NF 1, it is considered pathognomonic feature of NF1. We present a case of plexiform neurofibroma in the left side of the face in a 13-year-old girl with NF1.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  476 77 -
Osteoid osteoma in mandible: A rare case report with literature review
S Manoj Kumar, P Mahesh Kumar, PE Chandra Mouli, Meenakshi Krishnan, Vijeev Vasudevan, S Kailasam
July-September 2012, 24(3):223-225
Osteoid osteoma is a benign tumor of unknown etiology. It is more common in males. The hallmark of classical presentation is unrelenting, sharp, boring pain which worsens at night and increases with activity and followed by eventual regression. Diagnosis is established by histopathology. Treatment can be conservative management with long-term nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or surgical excision- We present a rare case of 30 years old female who had a complaint of painful mass in the left mandible that prompted an osteoid osteoma diagnosis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  463 88 -
Talons cusp in primary incisors: A rarity
Dhanu Ganesh Rao, Vijeev Vasudevan, Manjunath Venkatappa, Nagendran Jeyavelpandiyan
July-September 2012, 24(3):230-231
Talon cusp is an uncommon anomaly in the primary dentition. The present report describes a case of bilateral talon cusps on the maxillary primary central incisors in a 1-year, 4-month-old Indian boy. Both central incisors exhibited a sharp prominent accessory cusp on the palatal surface which extended from the cementoenamel junction to the incisal edge. There were no associated developmental syndromes.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  457 92 -
Enigma unraveled: Role of ultrasonography in tuberculous lymphadenopathy
ML Asha, S Naveen, Anju Anu Jose, Atul Bajoria, Ingitha Chatterjee, Shubha Gurudath
July-September 2012, 24(3):239-242
Lymphadenopathy is the most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis; cervical region being the frequent affected site. Ultrasound is a useful noninvasive imaging modality in the assessment of cervical lymph nodes. The morphology of lymph nodes is evaluated by grey-scale sonography and the power Doppler sonography helps in the assessment the vasculature of lymph nodes. Tuberculous lymphadenitis exhibits distinctive features like presence of adjacent soft tissue edema and matting of nodes. This article highlights the use of ultrasonographic as a diagnostic approach, by comparing and differentiating the features of tubercular lymph nodes in a 10-year-old female patient.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
  451 84 -