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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 418-422

Correlation of a new binary system in grading of oral leukoplakia for its prediction of malignant transformation - A retrospective record-based study


1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, KIIT DU, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
2 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, KIIT DU, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
3 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, KIIT DU, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
4 Department of Periodontolgy, Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, KIIT DU, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Correspondence Address:
N C Sangamesh
Professor and Head Vice Principal, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, KIIT DU, Bhubaneswar, Odisha
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jiaomr.jiaomr_52_22

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Introduction: Oral Leukoplakia is a premalignant lesion with an increased risk of developing oral cancer when the lesion is non-homogeneous. There is a need to validate clinical presentations of a commonly occurring Leukoplakia lesion and its probability of dysplastic changes over some time. Aim: To correlate the Diagnostic accuracy of clinical lesion diagnosed as Leukoplakia and the presence or absence of dysplasia through its histopathological correlation. Materials and Methods: This study gathered data retrospectively during 2016–2021 with an initial diagnosis of oral Leukoplakia. A set of 611 slides were included in the study that was signed out as oral Leukoplakia. We tested the hypothesis that a binary grading system categorizes lesions as “presence” or “absence” of oral epithelial dysplasia. A logistic regression analysis was used in predicting the presence of dysplasia among the various clinical criteria. Results: Most of the mild dysplasia was reported in the buccal mucosa (n = 195; 31.91%), followed by 6 (0.98%) cases in the vestibule. A mean age of 32.33 ± 7.0 was observed for severe dysplasia. A statistically significant relationship between the risk estimates for the clinical diagnosis and dysplasia was noted for all the lesion types. Conclusion: The study concludes that the clinical presentation of a lesion can predict the underlying dysplastic changes, and mixed red and white lesions with growth possess the highest risk of malignant transformations.


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