Home About us Editorial board Ahead of print Current issue Archives Submit article Instructions Subscribe Search Contacts Login 
  • Users Online: 233
  • Home
  • Print this page
  • Email this page


 
 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 34  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 22-26

Analysis report of adherence to consort statement for reporting randomized controlled trials (RCTs) Associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs): A cross-sectional study


1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, D. Y. Patil Dental School, Lohegaon, Pune, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, D. Y. Patil Dental School, Lohegaon, Pune, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, D Y Patil Dental College and Hospital, D Y Patil Vidyapeeth, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra, India
4 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, D. Y. Patil Dental School, Lohegaon, Pune, Maharashtra, India
5 Independent Research Consultant, Pune, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission19-Sep-2021
Date of Decision24-Nov-2021
Date of Acceptance16-Jan-2022
Date of Web Publication25-Mar-2022

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Kalyani Bhate
Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, D Y Patil Dental College and Hospital, D Y Patil Vidyapeeth, Pimpri, Pune, Maharashtra
India
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jiaomr.jiaomr_273_21

Rights and Permissions
   Abstract 


Purpose: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and their management are widely sought after by clinicians. They often refer to the reported randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in the literature. The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement aims to improve the quality of published RCTs and is endorsed by healthcare journals. Despite the widespread acceptance of CONSORT, its use for reporting clinical trials in the journals remains suboptimal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, to what extent RCTs related to TMDs have adhered to the CONSORT statement. Methodology: RCTs related to TMDs, published in PubMed from January 2017 to March 2021 were retrieved. Each article was assessed for its adherence to the CONSORT statement by four trained and calibrated investigators. Results: 88 articles were evaluated. Out of 37 items in the checklist, only 4 items demonstrated 100% adherence (item 2a, 2b, 5, 12a, and 16). The most under-reported items were 7a, 8b, 9, 10, 17a, 17b, 19, 23, and 24 (less than 50%). The mean percentage of adherence remained 71.2 ± 12.6. Only one study showed 100% adherence and three studies had less than 50% adherence. Considering adherence of abstract checklist, three items demonstrated 100% adherence (items 4, 5, and 6). Poor reporting was noted with items 8, 13, 15, and 16. The mean percentage of adherence to abstract reporting remained 68.60 ± 11.79. Conclusion: The present study indicates good adherence to CONSORT statement in reporting RCTs related to TMD management. Probably the mandatory instructions from the journals and increasing awareness among the researchers about CONSORT reporting might have done the trick.

Keywords: Adherence, CONSORT statement, randomized controlled trials, temporo-mandibular disorders


How to cite this article:
Shete-Motgi A, Shete M, Bhate K, Kshirsagar K, Kakodkar P. Analysis report of adherence to consort statement for reporting randomized controlled trials (RCTs) Associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs): A cross-sectional study. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2022;34:22-6

How to cite this URL:
Shete-Motgi A, Shete M, Bhate K, Kshirsagar K, Kakodkar P. Analysis report of adherence to consort statement for reporting randomized controlled trials (RCTs) Associated with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs): A cross-sectional study. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 May 27];34:22-6. Available from: https://www.jiaomr.in/text.asp?2022/34/1/22/340753




   Introduction Top


Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) affect almost 5% to 12% of the population making it the second most common musculoskeletal condition.[1] In general, these constitute of multiple signs and symptoms associated with Temporomandibular joint, masticatory muscles or both.[2] This symptom complex is often managed by multiple specialists like Oral Physicians and Radiologists, Prosthodontists, Orthodontists, Psychiatrists, Physiotherapists and Neurologists. Nevertheless, the management of TMDs is often complex and challenging. There is a continuous quest to identify easy, simple and feasible TMD management technique, and hence researchers are always undertaking clinical experimentations.

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are believed to be a rigorous and robust method of research to determine whether a cause–effect relation exists between outcome and intervention and well conducted RCTs are invariably recommended for decision-making in the clinical practice.[3] Literature is replete with RCTs related to TMD management.

To improve the quality of reporting RCTs, there are a variety of checklists available for the researchers including JBI Critical appraisal checklist, Jadad Scale, Modified Jadad Scale, Delphi List, Chalmers Scale, National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE) methodology checklist, Downs and Black checklist, and several other tools but these are not commonly used or recommended nowadays.[4] The CONSORT statement remains the most comprehensive and widely accepted tool for reporting RCTs. It was first published in 1996. The latest has been the CONSORT 2010, consisting of a checklist of 25 items that guides reporting of essential items of a RCT. The CONSORT checklist is divided into six sections: title and abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, and other information.[5] It addresses the minimum criteria for designing, analyzing and interpreting the trial. Hence, it is a useful tool in the research that allows the researcher to conduct a RCT and the clinician to critically assess the quality of evidence.[6] Despite the widespread acceptance of CONSORT, it is reported by several studies that adherence to CONSORT for the reporting of RCT is poor.[5]

Considering this background, the present study was designed to assess the reporting quality of RCTs regarding management of TMDs by evaluating its adherence to the CONSORT guidelines.


   Materials and Methods Top


The current study was a retrospective, cross-sectional record analysis study not involving human participants. The Institutional Ethics committee of D Y Patil Dental School, Lohegaon, Pune, has permitted exemption from ethical clearance [Certificate no. IECDYPDS/F-02/2021, dated 30-03-2021]. As this was not a systematic review, meta-analysis was not applicable. This study was conducted during 1 April 2021 to 31 July 2021. Inclusion criteria – The scientific publications on the RCTs related to TMDs were retrieved from PubMed (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/). The terms used for this search were management of TMD or TMJ disorders and TMD/TMJ management and RCT. The research articles in English published during January 2017 to March 2021 were selected. Exclusion criteria – Other general trials and controlled trials were excluded. In total, 110 articles were retrieved and out of those, 88 unique articles were selected after screening for the title and abstract. 84 articles were from international journals and 4 articles were from a national journal. Out of these, eight random articles were initially evaluated by all four authors for the purpose of standardization as well as calibration of the process. Four authors (AS, MS, KK, and KB) trained themselves to use the CONSORT statement checklist 2010. The areas of disagreement were discussed by all of the authors till a common consensus was reached. Later, each author individually assessed 20 articles. Furthermore, the authors also inspected “Instructions to author” section of the selected journals to check whether the CONSORT reporting was mandatory for the RCT manuscript. The findings were recorded in an excel sheet. Descriptive statistics viz. number percentage, mean, standard deviation, and median were calculated.


   Results Top


A total of 88 articles [Supplementary File 1] were selected from 40 journals. Of the 40 journals, 4 journals did not recommend CONSORT for reporting RCT in the “Instructions to Authors” guidelines [Supplementary File 2].



[Table 1] demonstrates adherence to CONSORT statement data for the 88 articles. Overall, out of the 37 items in the checklist, only 4 items showed 100% adherence (# 2a, 2b, 5, 12a, and 16). The most under-reported items were # 7a, 8b, 9, 10, 17a, 17b, 19, 23, and 24 (less than 50%). Out of the 37 items in the checklist, when individual studies were considered, in general the adherence ranged from 15 to 37 items, with a median of 25 items. The mean percentage of adherence remained 71.2 ± 12.6. There was only one study with 100% adherence and three studies with less than 50% adherence.
Table 1: Percentage of adherence of items of CONSORT for manuscript

Click here to view


[Table 2] demonstrates adherence to the Abstract checklist of CONSORT for the 88 articles. For only three items 100% adherence was observed (items # 4, 5, and 6). Poor reporting was noted with items #8, 13, 15, and16. While considering individual studies, out of the 16 listed items, adherence ranged from 7 to 16 items per study, with an overall median of 11 items. The mean percentage of adherence remained at 68.60 ± 11.79.
Table 2: Percentage of adherence of items of CONSORT for abstract

Click here to view



   Discussion Top


Results from RCTs have direct impact on patient care and outcomes, and hence, accurate and complete reporting of the design, conduct, analysis, and generalizability of the trial should be there.[7] The RCT protocol should be planned methodically and their outcomes should be reported clearly.[8] Well-designed, well-conducted, and well-reported RCTs provide the most unbiased data for reducing uncertainties around the effects of an outcome of interest and for improving the reliability of findings.[5] The clinicians often refer to previous interventional studies for guidance and ease of conducting studies.[9],[10],[11],[12],[13],[14],[15]

RCTs on TMD management from 2017 to 2021 have indicated a mean adherence of 71% to the CONSORT statement as revealed by the results of the present study. This is in consensus with the study by Fricton et al.,[16] who carried out critical appraisal of methods used in RCTs of treatments for TMDs and indicated that there was improvement in the quality of RCTs. Diversely, Abeer-A Al-Namankany et al.[17 reported that quality of reporting of RCTs between 1985 and 2006 in Pediatric dentistry journals was poor and ever since the development of CONSORT statement, the reporting of RCTs is improved. Recent study indicate that most of the RCTs on the prevention of occlusal caries have followed the CONSORT guidelines.[18]

Conversely, there are studies which imply that the reporting of clinical trials in journals remains poor.[19 Little improvement is seen in reporting of RCTs related to restorative dentistry in spite of endorsement of CONSORT.[20] Publications regarding RCTs on mandibular third molar in PubMed from 2015 to 2020 did not show 100% adherence to the CONSORT guidelines.[21] RCTs on Medical Informatics-Clinical Decision Support showed overall reporting quality to be low.[22] Additionally, suboptimal reporting of RCTs in the medical field has also been observed by various authors like Nagendran M et al.,[23] and Hopewell S et al.[24] Such poor adherence to CONSORT leads to insufficient clarity, confusion, reduced transparency, difficulty in reproducibility, questionable validity of the study and compromised interpretation of the results. Poorly reported RCTs fail to help the clinicians to guide for implementation of various management modalities.[21]

Each item mentioned in the CONSORT statement holds a special significance.[25] Abstract of the article, is very important for the readers.[26] The article searches and initial evaluation is made usually by reading the abstract. In the present study, 68.6% adherence was observed for the CONSORT abstract checklist. The areas of poor reporting were blinding status (#8), harms (#13), trial registration (#15), and funding (#16). These items were also found to be under reported in an earlier study.[21] The cause for this may be the word limit specifications by the journals. Most of the times, it is restricted to around 250–300 words and authors might find it difficult to mention all the details.

Overall reporting adherence of 71% was noted. The under-reported items in the present study were 7a, 8b, 9, 10, 17a, 17b, 19, 23, and 24. Sample size calculation (#7a) is very important as no study can be initiated without knowing the number of participants. The authors should give the details for assessing the authenticity and, relevance to statistical as well as clinical significance. Randomization (# 8, 9, 10) is one of the most important aspect of conducting RCT. The type of randomization and method used to employ the random allocation sequence needs to be mentioned. This will give an idea about bias free distributions of the groups. The calculation of risk difference (#17b) is a parameter for depiction of clinical significance and also for population generalization. It is necessary to mention this estimation when it is a binary outcome. When treating the patients, the most vital aspect for clinicians is to know about the harms (#19) caused to the participants. Being a primary responsibility, the clinicians should be able to avoid or minimize harms while providing maximum benefit to the patients. The registration of all the interventional trials is a scientific, ethical, and moral responsibility[27] and the author should provide trial number and name of trial registry (#23). The ICMJE (International Committee of Medical Journal Editors) gives guidance on acceptable registries (www.icmje.org/faq.pdf). A full accessible protocol (#24) pre-specifies methodology of the trial and can help to restrict the likelihood of undeclared post hoc changes to the trial. A full protocol proves to be beneficial to the readers and researchers. The authors should make effort to identify several options to make the protocol available.[27]


   Limitation Top


The present study analysis was limited to only TMD studies and considered articles of five years only. Further, the articles from PubMed were only considered. Hence, the results cannot be generalized across the articles published in other databases.

Future study prospects

Time and again, the importance of adherence to CONSORT guidelines for reporting RCTs has been published. Adherence to CONSORT greatly improves inclusivity, standardization of reporting and clarity to the readers. The adherence to CONSORT and overall reporting quality not only depends upon the authors but also on the journal policies. The editor should mandate the peer reviewers to review the RCT manuscript using CONSORT statement. In fact, the peer reviewers should be well versed with the CONSORT statement as their role is very important.[28] A systematic review in 2008 mentioned that adopting the CONSORT by journals has improved the quality of reporting trials.[29] In the future, ICMJE can mandate all the journals to include CONSORT reporting in their “Instruction to Authors” and the indexing bodies can consider this point as an important check mark while granting indexing to the journal. Based on the results of this study, future studies can be planned with a robust study design considering the lacunae of the present study.


   Conclusion Top


The results of the present study indicate an acceptable adherence of TMD studies reporting with CONSORT statement, although 100% is always desirable. With regards to TMD studies, it is admirable as compared to the observations from other studies in the literature. Probably the mandatory instructions from the journals will help achieve the 100% adherence.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.


   Supplementary File 1 Top


  1. Nagata K, Hori S, Mizuhashi R, Yokoe T, Atsumi Y, Nagai W, Goto M. Efficacy of mandibular manipulation technique for temporomandibular disorders patients with mouth opening limitation: a randomized controlled trial for comparison with improved multimodal therapy. J Prosthodont Res. 2019 Apr;63(2):202-209. doi: 10.1016/j.jpor.2018.11.010. Epub 2018 Dec 15. PMID: 30563758.
  2. Garrigós-Pedrón M, La Touche R, Navarro-Desentre P, Gracia-Naya M, Segura-Ortí E. Effects of a Physical Therapy Protocol in Patients with Chronic Migraine and Temporomandibular Disorders: A Randomized, Single-Blinded, Clinical Trial. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2018 Spring;32(2):137-150. doi: 10.11607/ofph.1912.PMID: 29694464.
  3. Saha FJ, Pulla A, Ostermann T, Miller T, Dobos G, Cramer H. Effects of occlusal splint therapy in patients with migraine or tension-type headache and comorbid temporomandibular disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Aug;98(33):e16805. doi: 10.1097/MD.0000000000016805. PMID:31415392; PMCID: PMC6831110.
  4. Chellappa D, Thirupathy M. Comparative efficacy of low-Level laser and TENS in the symptomatic relief of temporomandibular joint disorders: A randomized clinical trial. Indian J Dent Res. 2020 Jan-Feb;31(1):42-47. doi:10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_735_18. PMID: 32246680.
  5. Delgado de la Serna P, Plaza-Manzano G, Cleland J, Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Martín-Casas P, Díaz-Arribas MJ. Effects of Cervico-Mandibular Manual Therapy in Patients with Temporomandibular Pain Disorders and Associated Somatic Tinnitus:A Randomized Clinical Trial. Pain Med. 2020 Mar 1;21(3):613-624. doi: 10.1093/pm/pnz278. PMID: 31665507.
  6. Ferreira AP, Costa DR, Oliveira AI, Carvalho EA, Conti PC, Costa YM, Bonjardim LR. Short-term transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation reduces pain and improves the masticatory muscle activity in temporomandibular disorder patients: a randomized controlled trial. J Appl Oral Sci. 2017 Mar- Apr;25(2):112-120. doi: 10.1590/1678-77572016-0173. PMID: 28403351; PMCID: PMC5393531.
  7. Zotelli VL, Grillo CM, Gil ML, Wada RS, Sato JE, da Luz Rosário de Sousa M. Acupuncture Effect on Pain, Mouth Opening Limitation and on the Energy Meridians in Patients with Temporomandibular Dysfunction: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2017 Oct;10(5):351-359. doi: 10.1016/j.jams.2017.08.005. Epub 2017 Sep 22. PMID: 29078971.
  8. Madani A, Ahrari F, Fallahrastegar A, Daghestani N. A randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and laser acupuncture therapy (LAT) in patients with temporomandibular disorders. Lasers Med Sci. 2020 Feb;35(1):181-192. doi: 10.1007/s10103-019-02837-x. Epub 2019 Aug 8. PMID: 31396794.
  9. Sousa BM, López-Valverde N, López-Valverde A, Caramelo F, Fraile JF, Payo JH, Rodrigues MJ. Different Treatments in Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Disorders: A Comparative Randomized Study. Medicina (Kaunas). 2020 Mar 5;56(3):113. doi: 10.3390/medicina56030113. PMID: 32151101; PMCID: PMC7142788.
  10. Ishiyama H, Inukai S, Nishiyama A, Hideshima M, Nakamura S, Tamaoka M, Miyazaki Y, Fueki K, Wakabayashi N. Effect of jaw-opening exercise on prevention of temporomandibular disorders pain associated with oral appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Prosthodont Res. 2017 Jul;61(3):259-267. doi: 10.1016/j.jpor.2016.12.001. Epub 2017 Jan 4. PMID: 28063976.
  11. Gesslbauer C, Vavti N, Keilani M, Mickel M, Crevenna R. Effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative treatment versus osteopathy in the cranial field in temporomandibular disorders - a pilot study. Disabil Rehabil. 2018 Mar;40(6):631-636. doi: 10.1080/09638288.2016.1269368. Epub 2016 Dec 28. PMID: 28029069.
  12. Melo RA, de Resende CMBM, Rêgo CRF, Bispo ASL, Barbosa GAS, de Almeida EO. Conservative therapies to treat pain and anxiety associated with temporomandibular disorders: a randomized clinical trial. Int Dent J. 2020 Aug;70(4):245-253. doi: 10.1111/idj.12546. Epub 2020 Mar 10. PMID: 32153038.
  13. Shobha R, Narayanan VS, Jagadish Pai BS, Jaishankar HP, Jijin MJ. Low-level laser therapy: A novel therapeutic approach to temporomandibular disorder - A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Indian J Dent Res. 2017 Jul-Aug;28(4):380-387. doi: 10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_345_15. PMID: 28836528.
  14. Ramakrishnan SN, Aswath N. Comparative efficacy of analgesic gel phonophoresis and ultrasound in the treatment of temporomandibular joint disorders. Indian J Dent Res. 2019 Jul-Aug;30(4):512-515. doi: 10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_634_17. PMID: 31745044.
  15. Brochado FT, Jesus LH, Carrard VC, Freddo AL, Chaves KD, Martins MD. Comparative effectiveness of photobiomodulation and manual therapy alone or combined in TMD patients: a randomized clinical trial. Braz Oral Res. 2018 Jul 10;32:e50. doi: 10.1590/1807-3107bor-2018.vol32.0050. PMID: 29995062.
  16. Barbosa MA, Tahara AK, Ferreira IC, Intelangelo L, Barbosa AC. Effects of 8 weeks of masticatory muscles focused endurance exercises on women with oro- facial pain and temporomandibular disorders: A placebo randomised controlled trial. J Oral Rehabil. 2019 Oct;46(10):885-894. doi: 10.1111/joor.12823. Epub 2019 May 31. PMID: 31099036.
  17. Oliveira SSI, Pannuti CM, Paranhos KS, Tanganeli JPC, Laganá DC, Sesma N, Duarte M, Frigerio MLMA, Cho SC. Effect of occlusal splint and therapeutic exercises on postural balance of patients with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder. Clin Exp Dent Res. 2019 Feb 12;5(2):109-115. doi: 10.1002/cre2.136. PMID: 31049212; PMCID: PMC6483066.
  18. Calixtre LB, Oliveira AB, de Sena Rosa LR, Armijo-Olivo S, Visscher CM, Alburquerque-Sendín F. Effectiveness of mobilisation of the upper cervical region and craniocervical flexor training on orofacial pain, mandibular function and headache in women with TMD. A randomised, controlled trial. J Oral Rehabil. 2019 Feb;46(2):109-119. doi: 10.1111/joor.12733. Epub 2018 Oct 26. PMID: 30307636.
  19. Takeuchi-Sato T, Ono Y, Funato M, Sato H, Suganuma T, Baba K. Efficacy of an email-based recording and reminding system for limiting daytime non-functional tooth contact in patients with temporomandibular disorders: A randomized controlled trial. J Oral Rehabil. 2020 Feb;47(2):158-163. doi: 10.1111/joor.12875. Epub 2019 Sep 24. PMID: 31418908.
  20. Özden MC PhD, Atalay B DDS, MSc, PhD, Özden AV DDS, PhD, Çankaya A DDS, PhD, Kolay E PhD, Yıldırım S DDS, PhD. Efficacy of dry needling in patients with myofascial temporomandibular disorders related to the masseter muscle. Cranio. 2020 Sep;38(5):305-311. doi: 10.1080/08869634.2018.1526848. Epub 2018 Oct 9. PMID: 30296920.
  21. Cahlin BJ, Lindberg C, Dahlström L. Cerebral palsy and bruxism: Effects of botulinum toxin injections-A randomized controlled trial. Clin Exp Dent Res. 2019 Jun 29;5(5):460-468. doi: 10.1002/cre2.207. PMID: 31687178; PMCID: PMC6820579.
  22. van Grootel RJ, Buchner R, Wismeijer D, van der Glas HW. Towards an optimal therapy strategy for myogenous TMD, physiotherapy compared with occlusal splint therapy in an RCT with therapy-and-patient-specific treatment durations. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2017 Feb 10;18(1):76. doi: 10.1186/s12891-017-1404-9. PMID: 28183288; PMCID: PMC5301345.
  23. Lam J, Svensson P, Alstergren P. Internet-Based Multimodal Pain Program With Telephone Support for Adults With Chronic Temporomandibular Disorder Pain: Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial. J Med Internet Res. 2020 Oct 13;22(10):e22326. doi: 10.2196/22326. PMID: 33048053; PMCID: PMC7592067.
  24. Dolwick MF, Diaz D, Freburg-Hoffmeister DL, Widmer CG. A Randomized, Double- Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of the Efficacy of Steroid Supplementation After Temporomandibular Joint Arthrocentesis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020 Jul;78(7):1088-1099. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2020.02.022. Epub 2020 Feb 26. PMID: 32201122.
  25. Rodrigues MDF, Rodrigues ML, Bueno KS, Aroca JP, Camilotti V, Busato MCA, Mendonça MJ. Effects of low-power laser auriculotherapy on the physical and emotional aspects in patients with temporomandibular disorders: A blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Complement Ther Med. 2019 Feb;42:340-346. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2018.12.010. Epub 2018 Dec 18. PMID: 30670264.
  26. Şen S, Orhan G, Sertel S, Schmitter M, Schindler HJ, Lux CJ, Giannakopoulos NN. Comparison of acupuncture on specific and non-specific points for thetreatment of painful temporomandibular disorders: A randomised controlled trial. J Oral Rehabil. 2020 Jul;47(7):783-795. doi: 10.1111/joor.12952. Epub 2020 Mar 9. PMID: 32077514.
  27. Pietropaoli D, Cooper BC, Ortu E, Monaco A; I.A.P.N.O.R.. A Device Improves Signs and Symptoms of TMD. Pain Res Manag. 2019 May 6;2019:5646143. doi: 10.1155/2019/5646143. Erratum in: Pain Res Manag. 2020 Apr 17;2020:9465080. PMID: 31198477; PMCID: PMC6526566.
  28. Herpich CM, Leal-Junior ECP, Politti F, de Paula Gomes CAF, Dos Santos Glória IP, de Souza Amaral MFR, Herpich G, de Azevedo LMA, de Oliveira Gonzalez T, Biasotto-Gonzalez DA. Intraoral photobiomodulation diminishes pain and improves functioning in women with temporomandibular disorder: a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blind clinical trial : Intraoral photobiomodulation diminishes pain in women with temporomandibular disorder. Lasers Med Sci. 2020 Mar;35(2):439-445. doi: 10.1007/s10103-019-02841-1. Epub 2019 Jul 19. PMID: 31325122.
  29. Louw WF, Reeves KD, Lam SKH, Cheng AL, Rabago D. Treatment of Temporomandibular Dysfunction With Hypertonic Dextrose Injection (Prolotherapy):A Randomized Controlled Trial With Long-term Partial Crossover. Mayo Clin Proc. 2019 May;94(5):820-832. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2018.07.023. Epub 2019 Mar 14. PMID: 30878157.
  30. De Giorgi I, Castroflorio T, Sartoris B, Deregibus A. The use of conventional transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in chronic facial myalgia patients. Clin Oral Investig. 2017 Jan;21(1):275-280. doi: 10.1007/s00784-016-1787-2. Epub 2016 Mar 22. PMID: 27000071.
  31. Dalewski B, Kamińska A, Szydłowski M, Kozak M, Sobolewska E. Comparison of Early Effectiveness of Three Different Intervention Methods in Patients with Chronic Orofacial Pain: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial. Pain Res Manag. 2019 Mar 11;2019:7954291. doi: 10.1155/2019/7954291. PMID: 30984320; PMCID: PMC6432695.
  32. Celakil T, Muric A, Gokcen Roehlig B, Evlioglu G, Keskin H. Effect of high- frequency bio-oxidative ozone therapy for masticatory muscle pain: a double-blind randomised clinical trial. J Oral Rehabil. 2017 Jun;44(6):442-451. doi: 10.1111/joor.12506. Epub 2017 Apr 9. PMID: 28301687
  33. 108: Costa SAP, Florezi GP, Artes GE, Costa JRD, Gallo RT, Freitas PM, Witzel AL. The analgesic effect of photobiomodulation therapy (830 nm) on themasticatory muscles: a randomized, double-blind study. Braz Oral Res. 2017 Dec 18;31:e107. doi: 10.1590/1807-3107bor-2017.vol31.0107. PMID: 29267668.
  34. Grillo CM, Zotelli VLR, Lúcia Bressiani Gil M, de Sousa MDLR. Would a Placebo Acupuncture Needle be Able to Induce Deqi? J Acupunct Meridian Stud. 2018 Oct;11(5):273-279. doi: 10.1016/j.jams.2018.06.007. Epub 2018 Jun 23. PMID: 29944925.
  35. Reynolds B, Puentedura EJ, Kolber MJ, Cleland JA. Effectiveness of Cervical Spine High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude Thrust Added to Behavioral Education, Soft Tissue Mobilization, and Exercise for People With Temporomandibular Disorder With Myalgia: A Randomized Clinical Trial. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2020 Aug;50(8):455-465. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2020.9175. Epub 2020 Jan 6. PMID: 31905097.
  36. Douglas De Oliveira DW, Lages FS, Guimarães RC, Pereira TS, Botelho AM, Glória JCR, Tavano KTA, Gonçalves PF, Flecha OD. Do TMJ symptoms improve and last across time after treatment with red (660 nm) and infrared (790 nm) low level laser treatment (LLLT)? A survival analysis. Cranio. 2017 Nov;35(6):372-378. doi: 10.1080/08869634.2017.1292176. Epub 2017 Feb 20. PMID: 28218006.
  37. Wänman A, Marklund S. Treatment outcome of supervised exercise, home exercise and bite splint therapy, respectively, in patients with symptomatic disc displacement with reduction: A randomised clinical trial. J Oral Rehabil. 2020 Feb;47(2):143-149. doi: 10.1111/joor.12888. Epub 2019 Sep 30. PMID: 31520538; PMCID: PMC7003750.
  38. Demirkol N, Usumez A, Demirkol M, Sari F, Akcaboy C. Efficacy of Low-Level Laser Therapy in Subjective Tinnitus Patients with Temporomandibular Disorders. Photomed Laser Surg. 2017 Aug;35(8):427-431. doi: 10.1089/pho.2016.4240. Epub 2017 Mar 14. PMID: 28294697.
  39. 106: Machon V, Levorova J, Hirjak D, Wisniewski M, Drahos M, Sidebottom A, Foltan R. A prospective assessment of outcomes following the use of autologous blood for the management of recurrent temporomandibular joint dislocation. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018 Mar;22(1):53-57. doi: 10.1007/s10006-017-0666-6. Epub 2017 Nov 30. PMID: 29189955.
  40. Alajbeg IZ, Vrbanović E, Lapić I, Alajbeg I, Vuletić L. Effect of occlusal splint on oxidative stress markers and psychological aspects of chronic temporomandibular pain: a randomized controlled trial. Sci Rep. 2020 Jul 3;10(1):10981. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-67383-x. PMID: 32620810; PMCID: PMC7335071.
  41. Lei J, Yap AU, Liu MQ, Fu KY. Condylar repair and regeneration in adolescents/young adults with early-stage degenerative temporomandibular joint disease: A randomised controlled study. J Oral Rehabil. 2019 Aug;46(8):704-714. doi: 10.1111/joor.12805. Epub 2019 May 7. PMID: 31009097.
  42. Borges RMM, Cardoso DS, Flores BC, da Luz RD, Machado CR, Cerveira GP, Daitx RB, Dohnert MB. Effects of different photobiomodulation dosimetries on temporomandibular dysfunction: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lasers Med Sci. 2018 Dec;33(9):1859-1866. doi: 10.1007/s10103-018-2533-6. Epub 2018 May 30. PMID: 29850961.
  43. 105: Grossmann E, Guilherme Vargas Pasqual P, Poluha RL, Iwaki LCV, Iwaki Filho L, Setogutti ÊT. Single-Needle Arthrocentesis with Upper Compartment Distension versus Conventional Two-Needle Arthrocentesis: Randomized Clinical Trial. Pain Res Manag. 2017;2017:2435263. doi: 10.1155/2017/2435263. Epub 2017 Oct 3. PMID: 29109658; PMCID: PMC5646327.
  44. Priyadarshini S, Gnanam A, Sasikala B, Elavenil P, Raja Sethupathy Cheeman S, Mrunalini R, Krishna Kumar Raja VB. Evaluation of prolotherapy in comparison with occlusal splints in treating internal derangement of the temporomandibular joint - A randomized controlled trial. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2021 Jan;49(1):24-28. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2020.11.004. Epub 2020 Nov 17. PMID: 33279397.
  45. De Riu G, Vaira LA, Carta E, Meloni SM, Sembronio S, Robiony M. Bone marrow nucleated cell concentrate autograft in temporomandibular joint degenerative disorders: 1-year results of a randomized clinical trial. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2019 Nov;47(11):1728-1738. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2018.11.025. Epub 2018 Dec 24. PMID: 31601466.
  46. Fernández-Ferro M, Fernández-Sanromán J, Blanco-Carrión A, Costas-López A, López-Betancourt A, Arenaz-Bua J, Stavaru Marinescu B. Comparison of intra- articular injection of plasma rich in growth factors versus hyaluronic acid following arthroscopy in the treatment of temporomandibular dysfunction: A randomised prospective study. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2017 Apr;45(4):449-454. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2017.01.010. Epub 2017 Jan 25. PMID: 28237253.
  47. Yang W, Liu W, Miao C, Sun H, Li L, Li C. Oral Glucosamine Hydrochloride Combined With Hyaluronate Sodium Intra-Articular Injection for Temporomandibular Joint Osteoarthritis: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018 Oct;76(10):2066-2073. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2018.04.031. Epub 2018 Jun 2. PMID: 29864430.
  48. Yilmaz O, Korkmaz YT, Tuzuner T. Comparison of treatment efficacy between hyaluronic acid and arthrocentesis plus hyaluronic acid in internal derangements of temporomandibular joint. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2019 Nov;47(11):1720-1727. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2019.07.030. Epub 2019 Jul 25. PMID: 31451342.
  49. Rastogi S, Sharma A, Kumari N, Choudhury R, Tripathi S, Kumar A, Chauhan P, Kumar Das K. Is a deep subfascial approach better than the subfascial apporach to temporo-mandibular joint in terms of facial nerve injury and quality of life? J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2018 Aug;46(8):1172-1178. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2018.04.002. Epub 2018 Apr 20. PMID: 29907435.
  50. Manfredini D, Favero L, Cocilovo F, Monici M, Guarda-Nardini L. A comparison trial between three treatment modalities for the management of myofascial pain of jaw muscles: A preliminary study. Cranio. 2018 Sep;36(5):327-331. doi: 10.1080/08869634.2017.1349571. Epub 2017 Jul 11. PMID: 28697676.
  51. Hegab AF, Youssef AH, Hameed HIAA, Karam KS. MRI-based determination of occlusal splint thickness for temporomandibular joint disk derangement: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2018 Jan;125(1):74-87. doi: 10.1016/j.oooo.2017.09.017. Epub 2017 Oct 12. PMID: 29146196.
  52. Huttunen J, Qvintus V, Suominen AL, Sipilä K. Role of psychosocial factors on treatment outcome of temporomandibular disorders. Acta Odontol Scand. 2019 Mar;77(2):119-125. doi: 10.1080/00016357.2018.1511057. Epub 2018 Sep 28. PMID: 30264631.
  53. Folle FS, Poluha RL, Setogutti ET, Grossmann E. Double puncture versus single puncture arthrocentesis for the management of unilateral temporomandibular joint disc displacement without reduction: A randomized controlled trial. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2018 Dec;46(12):2003-2007. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2018.10.015. Epub 2018 Oct 26. PMID: 30446325.
  54. Capan N, Esmaeilzadeh S, Karan A, Dıracoglu D, Emekli U, Yıldız A, Baskent A, Aksoy C. Effect of an early supervised rehabilitation programme compared with home-based exercise after temporomandibular joint condylar discopexy: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017 Mar;46(3):314-321. doi: 10.1016/j.ijom.2016.07.010. Epub 2016 Nov 29. PMID: 27912927.
  55. Exposto FG, Bendixen KH, Ernberg M, Bach FW, Svensson P. Characterization and predictive mechanisms of experimentally induced tension-type headache. Cephalalgia. 2019 Sep;39(10):1207-1218. doi: 10.1177/0333102419840779. Epub 2019 Mar 28. PMID: 30922083.
  56. De Giorgi I DDS, Castroflorio T DDS, PhD, Cugliari G MSc, Deregibus A MD, DDS, PhD. Does occlusal splint affect posture? A randomized controlled trial. Cranio. 2020 Jul;38(4):264-272. doi: 10.1080/08869634.2018.1511265. Epub 2018 Sep 14. PMID: 30215301.
  57. Herpich CM, Leal-Junior ECP, Gomes CAFP, Gloria IPDS, Amaral AP, Amaral MFRS, Politti F, Biasotto-Gonzalez DA. Immediate and short-term effects of phototherapy on pain, muscle activity, and joint mobility in women with temporomandibular disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled,clinical trial. Disabil Rehabil. 2018 Sep;40(19):2318-2324. doi: 10.1080/09638288.2017.1336648. Epub 2017 Jun 11. PMID: 28602137.
  58. Patel AA, Lerner MZ, Blitzer A. IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection for Temporomandibular Joint Disorder. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2017 Apr;126(4):328-333. doi: 10.1177/0003489417693013. Epub 2017 Feb 1. PMID: 28290229.
  59. Devi J, Verma M, Gupta R. Assessment of treatment response to splint therapy and evaluation of TMJ function using joint vibration analysis in patients exhibiting TMJ disc displacement with reduction: A clinical study. Indian J Dent Res. 2017 Jan-Feb;28(1):33-43. doi: 10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_154_16. PMID: 28393815.
  60. Costa YM, Ferreira DMAO, Conti PCR, Baad-Hansen L, Svensson P, Bonjardim LR. Topical anaesthesia degree is reduced in temporomandibular disorders patients: A novel approach to assess underlying mechanisms of the somatosensory alterations. J Oral Rehabil. 2020 Feb;47(2):113-122. doi: 10.1111/joor.12874. Epub 2019 Sep 6. PMID: 31418881.
  61. Castaño-Joaqui OG, Cano-Sánchez J, Campo-Trapero J, Muñoz-Guerra MF. TMJ arthroscopy with hyaluronic acid: A 12-month randomized clinical trial. Oral Dis. 2021 Mar;27(2):301-311. doi: 10.1111/odi.13524. Epub 2020 Jul 25. PMID: 32609918.
  62. Wahlund K, Larsson B. Long-term treatment outcome for adolescents with temporomandibular pain. Acta Odontol Scand. 2018 Apr;76(3):153-160. doi: 10.1080/00016357.2017.1394490. Epub 2017 Oct 26. PMID: 29073802.
  63. Öhrnell Malekzadeh B, Johansson Cahlin B, Widmark G. Conservative therapy versus arthrocentesis for the treatment of symptomatic disk displacement without reduction: a prospective randomized controlled study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2019 Jul;128(1):18-24. doi: 10.1016/j.oooo.2019.03.010. Epub 2019 Mar 15. PMID: 31027963.
  64. Al Sayegh S, Vasilatou I, Kumar A, Al Barwari C, Fredriksson L, Grigoriadis A, Christidis N. Experimental pain and fatigue induced by excessive chewing. BMCOral Health. 2020 Jun 29;20(1):179. doi: 10.1186/s12903-020-01161-z. PMID: 32600327; PMCID: PMC7322929.
  65. Bergmann A, Edelhoff D, Schubert O, Erdelt KJ, Pho Duc JM. Effect of treatment with a full-occlusion biofeedback splint on sleep bruxism and TMD pain: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Clin Oral Investig. 2020 Nov;24(11):4005-4018. doi: 10.1007/s00784-020-03270-z. Epub 2020 May 19. PMID: 32430774; PMCID: PMC7544753.
  66. Shandilya S, Mohanty S, Sharma P, Chaudhary Z, Kohli S, Kumar RD. Effect of Preoperative Intramuscular Injection of Botulinum Toxin A on Pain and Mouth Opening After Surgical Intervention in Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis Cases: A Controlled Clinical Trial. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020 Jun;78(6):916-926. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2020.02.011. Epub 2020 Feb 19. PMID: 32171600.
  67. Doepel M, Nilner M, Vahlberg T, Le Bell Y. Similar treatment outcome in myofascial TMD patients with localized and widespread pain. Acta Odontol Scand. 2018 Apr;76(3):175-182. doi: 10.1080/00016357.2017.1399215. Epub 2017 Nov 10. PMID: 29124991.
  68. Kaur K, Roychoudhury A, Bhutia O, Bhalla AS, Yadav R, Pandey RM. Evaluation of Success of Transport Disc Distraction Osteogenesis and Costochondral Graft for Ramus Condyle Unit Reconstruction in Pediatric Temporomandibular Joint Ankylosis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020 Jun;78(6):1018.e1-1018.e16. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2020.01.029. Epub 2020 Jan 31. PMID: 32105616.
  69. Bhargava D, Thomas S, Pawar P, Jain M, Pathak P. Ultrasound-guided arthrocentesis using single-puncture, double-lumen, single-barrel needle for patients with temporomandibular joint acute closed lock internal derangement. Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019 Jun;23(2):159-165. doi: 10.1007/s10006-019-00753-6.Epub 2019 Mar 28. PMID: 30923970.
  70. Hasanoglu Erbasar GN, Alpaslan C, Eroglu Inan G. Can an NTI-tss device be effective as a first-line therapy in patients with TMD myofascial pain? J Oral Rehabil. 2017 Aug;44(8):589-593. doi: 10.1111/joor.12524. Epub 2017 Jun 7. PMID: 28593734.
  71. de Salles-Neto FT, de Paula JS, Romero JGAJ, Almeida-Leite CM. Acupuncturefor pain, mandibular function and oral health-related quality of life in patients with masticatory myofascial pain: A randomised controlled trial. J Oral Rehabil. 2020 Oct;47(10):1193-1201. doi: 10.1111/joor.13055. Epub 2020 Jul 31. PMID: 32668487.
  72. Giannakopoulos NN, Rauer AK, Hellmann D, Hugger S, Schmitter M, Hugger A. Comparison of device-supported sensorimotor training and splint intervention for myofascial temporomandibular disorder pain patients. J Oral Rehabil. 2018 Sep;45(9):669-676. doi: 10.1111/joor.12662. Epub 2018 Jun 19. PMID: 29855069.
  73. Koyama Y, Sugimoto A, Hamano T, Kasahara T, Toyokura M, Masakado Y. Proposal for a Modified Jaw Opening Exercise for Dysphagia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial. Tokai J Exp Clin Med. 2017 Jul 20;42(2):71-78. PMID: 28681366.
  74. Andrade NN, Aggarwal N, Mathai P, Nerurkar S, Desai H, Gupta V. Is dermis fat arthroplasty better than plain gap arthroplasty? A prospective randomised controlled trial. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020 Oct;58(8):970-974. doi: 10.1016/j.bjoms.2020.04.045. Epub 2020 May 24. PMID: 32456996.
  75. Pihut ME, Margielewicz J, Kijak E, Wiśniewska G. Evaluation of articular disc loading in the temporomandibular joints after prosthetic and pharmacological treatment in model studies. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2017 May- Jun;26(3):455-460. doi: 10.17219/acem/62216. PMID: 28791820.
  76. Kang SK, Lee YH, Park H, Ro JY, Auh QS. Effects of intramuscular morphine in men and women with temporomandibular disorder with myofascial pain. Oral Dis. 2018 Nov;24(8):1591-1598. doi: 10.1111/odi.12919. Epub 2018 Jul 6. PMID: 29920852; PMCID: PMC6193838.
  77. Isacsson G, Schumann M, Nohlert E, Mejersjö C, Tegelberg Å. Pain relief following a single-dose intra-articular injection of methylprednisolone in the temporomandibular joint arthralgia-A multicentre randomised controlled trial. J Oral Rehabil. 2019 Jan;46(1):5-13. doi: 10.1111/joor.12718. Epub 2018 Oct 10. PMID: 30240024; PMCID: PMC7379597.
  78. Kokkola O, Suominen AL, Qvintus V, Myllykangas R, Lahti S, Tolvanen M, Sipilä K. Efficacy of stabilisation splint treatment on the oral health-related quality of life-A randomised controlled one-year follow-up trial. J Oral Rehabil. 2018 May;45(5):355-362. doi: 10.1111/joor.12622. PMID: 29512838.
  79. Rodrigues CA DDS, MS, PhD, Melchior MO SLPs, MS, Valencise Magri L DDS, MS,PhD, Mazzetto MO DDS, MS, PhD. Can the severity of orofacial myofunctional conditions interfere with the response of analgesia promoted by active or placebo low-level laser therapy? Cranio. 2020 Jul;38(4):240-247. doi: 10.1080/08869634.2018.1520950. Epub 2018 Sep 23. PMID: 30244669.
  80. Hussain H, Crow H, Gonzalez Y, McCall WD Jr. Immediate Effect of Continuous Ultrasound vs Sham Ultrasound for Bilateral Masseter Myalgia: A Double-Blinded Trial. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2018 Summer;32(3):304–308. doi: 10.11607/ofph.2000. Epub 2018 May 15. PMID: 29767650.
  81. Magri LV, Carvalho VA, Rodrigues FC, Bataglion C, Leite-Panissi CR. Effectiveness of low-level laser therapy on pain intensity, pressure pain threshold, and SF-MPQ indexes of women with myofascial pain. Lasers Med Sci. 2017 Feb;32(2):419-428. doi: 10.1007/s10103-016-2138-x. Epub 2017 Jan 4. PMID: 28054261.
  82. Durá-Ferrandis E, Ferrando-García M, Galdón-Garrido MJ, Andreu-Vaillo Y. Confirming the mechanisms behind cognitive-behavioural therapy effectiveness in chronic pain using structural equation modeling in a sample of patients with temporomandibular disorders. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2017 Nov;24(6):1377-1383. doi: 10.1002/cpp.2114. Epub 2017 Aug 14. PMID: 28804935.
  83. Rampello A, Papi P, Pompa G, Rampello A, Polimeni A, Di Paolo C. A novel universal device”LINGUAL RING Ri.P.A.Ra” for TMDs and cranio-cervico-mandibular pains: preliminary results of a randomized control clinical trial. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2018 Mar;22(5):1180-1190. doi: 10.26355/eurrev_201803_14456. PMID: 29565472.
  84. Nitecka-Buchta A, Walczynska-Dragon K, Batko-Kapustecka J, Wieckiewicz M. Comparison between Collagen and Lidocaine Intramuscular Injections in Terms of Their Efficiency in Decreasing Myofascial Pain within Masseter Muscles: A Randomized, Single-Blind Controlled Trial. Pain Res Manag. 2018 Jun 3;2018:8261090. doi: 10.1155/2018/8261090. PMID: 29973970; PMCID: PMC6008702.
  85. Magri LV, Carvalho VA, Rodrigues FCC, Bataglion C, Leite-Panissi CRA. Non- specific effects and clusters of women with painful TMD responders and non- responders to LLLT: double-blind randomized clinical trial. Lasers Med Sci. 2018 Feb;33(2):385-392. doi: 10.1007/s10103-017-2406-4. Epub 2017 Dec 5. PMID: 29209867.
  86. Castrillon EE, Exposto FG, Sato H, Tanosoto T, Arima T, Baad-Hansen L, Svensson P. Entropy of Masseter Muscle Pain Sensitivity: A New Technique for Pain Assessment. J Oral Facial Pain Headache. 2017 Winter;31(1):87-94. doi: 10.11607/ofph.1756. PMID: 28118425.
  87. Mustafa R, Güngörmüş M, Mollaoğlu N. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Different Concentrations of Dextrose Prolotherapy in Temporomandibular Joint Hypermobility Treatment. J Craniofac Surg. 2018 Jul;29(5):e461-e465. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000004480. PMID: 29533255.
  88. Ozdamar SM, Alev B, Yarat A. The impact of arthrocentesis with and without hyaluronic acid injection in the prognosis and synovial fluid myeloperoxidase levels of patients with painful symptomatic internal derangement of temporomandibular joint: a randomised controlled clinical trial. J Oral Rehabil. 2017 Feb;44(2):73-80. doi: 10.1111/joor.12467. PMID: 27973684.




 
   References Top

1.
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research [7/28/2013]. Facial pain. Available from: http://www.nidcr.nih.gov/DataStatistics/FindDataByTopic/FacialPain.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Chellappa D, Thirupathy M. Comparative efficacy of low-level laser and TENS in the symptomatic relief of temporomandibular joint disorders: A randomized clinical trial. Indian J Dent Res 2020;31:42-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
[PUBMED]  [Full text]  
3.
Bhide A, Shah PS, Acharya G. A simplified guide to randomized controlled trials. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2018;97:380–7.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Ma LL, Wang YY, Yang ZH, Huang D, Weng H, Zeng XT. Methodological quality (risk of bias) assessment tools for primary and secondary medical studies: What are they and which is better? Military Med Res 2020;7:7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Mozetic V, Leonel L, Pacheco LR, Latorraca COC, Guimarães T, Logullo P, et al. Reporting quality and adherence of randomized controlled trials about statins and/or fibrates for diabetic retinopathy to the CONSORT checklist. Trials 2019;20:729.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Falci SGM, Marques LS. Consort: When and how to use it. Dental Press J Orthod 2015;20:13-5.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Begg C, Cho M, Eastwood S, Horton R, Moher D, Olkin I, et al. Improving the quality of reporting of randomized controlled trials. The CONSORT statement. JAMA 1996;276:637–9.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Bastian H, Glasziou P, Chalmers I. Seventy-five trials and eleven systematic reviews a day: How will we ever keep up. PLoS Med 2010;7:e1000326. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed. 1000326.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Singh H, Sunil MK, Kumar R, Singla N, Dua N, Garud SR. Evaluation of TENS therapy and Placebo drug therapy in the management of TMJ pain disorders: A comparative study. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2014; 26:139-44.  Back to cited text no. 9
  [Full text]  
10.
Tripathi P, Mathur H, Tripathi S, Saxena VS, Ahmed J. Miseries and remedies of myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome: Comparative study. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2019; 31:210-6.  Back to cited text no. 10
  [Full text]  
11.
Gupta P, Naik SR, Ashok L, Poornima R, Shetty R. Combination of trypsin, rutoside, bromelain and diclofenac sodium in the management of internal derangement of temporomandibular joint: A randomized clinical trial. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2020; 32:216-21.  Back to cited text no. 11
  [Full text]  
12.
Jagdhari SB, Patni VM, Motwani M, Motghare P, Gangotri S. Evaluation of laser therapy and routine treatment modalities in the management of myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2015; 27:553-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
  [Full text]  
13.
Handa R, Sunil MK, Gupta C, Raina A, Khan T, Gulzar A. Efficacy of ultrasound massage therapy as an adjuvant pain control modality in TMDs: A clinical study. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2018; 30:107-9.  Back to cited text no. 13
  [Full text]  
14.
Tak MM, Chalkoo AH, Bhat TA, Jan T. Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of gabapentin and gabapentin in combination with nortriptyline in the management of pain-related temporomandibular disorders. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2021; 33:171-6.  Back to cited text no. 14
  [Full text]  
15.
Moger G, Shashikanth MC, Sunil MK, Shambulingappa P. Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Therapy in Temporomandibular Disorder: A Clinical Study. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2011; 23 (1):46-50.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Fricton JR, Ouyang W, Nixdorf DR, Schiffman EL, Velly AM, Look JO. Critical appraisal of methods used in randomized controlled trials of treatments for temporomandibular disorders. J Orofac Pain. 2010 Spring; 24(2):139-51. PMID: 20401352; PMCID: PMC4545283.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Al-Namankany AA, Ashley P, Moles DR, Parekh S. Assessment of the quality of reporting of randomized clinical trials in paediatric dentistry journals. Int J Paediatr Dent 2009;19:318-24.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Ortiz MIG, Ribeiro MES, Lima DANL, Silva CM, Loretto SC, da Silva E Souza Júnior MH. Compliance of randomized clinical trials on dental caries prevention methods with the consort statement: A systematic review. J Evid Based Dent Pract 2021;21:101542.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Turner L, Shamseer L, Altman DG, Schulz KF, Moher D. Does use of the CONSORT Statement impact the completeness of reporting of randomized controlled trials published in medical journals? A Cochrane review. Syst Rev 2012;1:60.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Dent Sarkis-Onofre R, Poletto-Neto V, Cenci MS, Pereira-Cenci T, Moher D. Impact of the CONSORT Statement endorsement in the completeness of reporting of randomized clinical trials in restorative dentistry. J Dent 2017;58:54-9.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Kshirsagar K, Bhate K, Shete A, Kakodkar P. Adherence to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guidelines for reporting randomized controlled trials related to mandibular third molars. J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2021;79:1207-13.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Augestad KM, Berntsen G, Lassen K, Bellika JG, Wootton R, Lindsetmo RO, et al. Standards for reporting randomized controlled trials in medical informatics: A systematic review of CONSORT adherence in RCTs on clinical decision support. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2012;19:13-21. doi: 10.1136/amiajnl-2011-000411.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Nagendran M, Harding D, Teo W, Camm C, Maruthapu M, McCulloch P, et al. Poor adherence of randomised trials in surgery to CONSORT guidelines for non-pharmacological treatments (NPT): A cross-sectional study. BMJ Open 2013;3:e003898. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2013-003898.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Hopewell S, Dutton S, Yu LM, Chan AW, Altman DG. The quality of reports of randomized trials in 2000 and 2006: Comparative study of articles indexed in PubMed. BMJ 2010;340:723.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Sarveravan P, Astaneh B, Shokrpour N. Adherence to the CONSORT statement in the reporting of randomized controlled trials on pharmacological interventions published in Iranian medical journals. Iran J Med Sci 2017;42:532.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Pandis N, Shamseer L, Kokich VG, Fleming PS, Moher D. Active implementation strategy of CONSORT adherence by a dental specialty journal improved randomized clinical trial reporting. J Clin Epidemiol 2014;67:1044-8.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
CONSORT 2010. Explanation and elaboration document. Available from: http://www.consort-statement.org/consort-2010. [Last accessed on 2020 Jun 23].  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
PLOS Medicine Editors. Better reporting of scientific studies: Why it matters. PLoS Med 2013;10:e1001504. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed. 1001504.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Needleman I, Worthington H, Moher D, Schulz K, Altman DG. Improving the completeness and transparency of reports of randomized trials in oral health: The CONSORT Statement. Am J Dent 2008;21:7-12.  Back to cited text no. 29
    



 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2]



 

Top
 
 
  Search
 
Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
Access Statistics
Email Alert *
Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)

   Abstract Introduction Materials and Me... Results Discussion Limitation Conclusion Supplementary File 1 Article Tables
  In this article
 References

 Article Access Statistics
    Viewed266    
    Printed6    
    Emailed0    
    PDF Downloaded38    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal


[TAG2]
[TAG3]
[TAG4]