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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 397-400

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of lycopene, raspberry, green tea herbal formulation mediated silver nanoparticle


1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, India
2 Department of Pharmacology, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Chennai, India

Date of Submission16-Apr-2021
Date of Decision31-Aug-2021
Date of Acceptance02-Sep-2021
Date of Web Publication27-Dec-2021

Correspondence Address:
Dr. T N Uma Maheswari
Department of Oral Medicine, Saveetha Dental College and Hospitals, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Saveetha University, Chennai - 600 077, Tamil Nadu
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/jiaomr.jiaomr_98_21

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   Abstract 


Aim: To assess the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of a formulation containing lycopene, raspberry, green tea herbal, and silver particles. Materials and Methods: In this study, a formulation of lycopene (10%), raspberry (25%), green tea (95% polyphenols), and silver nanoparticles was subjected to anti-inflammatory testing using bovine serum albumin (BSA) assay and antioxidant testing by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) assay. Results: Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant assays showed that the highest inhibition was seen at 50 μL concentration. Conclusion: From the above results, it can be concluded that the combination of herbal extracts along with silver nanoparticles has better anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities.

Keywords: Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, lycopene


How to cite this article:
Chaithanya MV, Uma Maheswari T N, Rajeshkumar S. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of lycopene, raspberry, green tea herbal formulation mediated silver nanoparticle. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2021;33:397-400

How to cite this URL:
Chaithanya MV, Uma Maheswari T N, Rajeshkumar S. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of lycopene, raspberry, green tea herbal formulation mediated silver nanoparticle. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol [serial online] 2021 [cited 2022 Aug 8];33:397-400. Available from: https://www.jiaomr.in/text.asp?2021/33/4/397/333884




   Introduction Top


Lycopene is a red pigment that is found in tomatoes, it is a tetraterpene that is assembled from eight isoprene units composed of carbon and hydrogen bonds, it has a strong antioxidant property. The availability of lycopene is high in the human body when compared with other carotenoids.[1],[2],[3],[4],[5]

More clinical evidence suggests that lycopene protects against cancer and chronic diseases. It binds with cells and protects from lipid peroxidation and neutralizing hydroxyl radicals.[6],[7],[8],[9]

The antioxidant activity of the lycopene is due to the mechanism of scavenging activity of the reactive oxygen species (ROS). Lycopene when consumed directly from tomato is known as active or bio-lycopene, which has certain anti-inflammatory properties that help to reduce chances of chronic and systemic diseases.[10],[11],[12],[13]

Anticancer property of lycopene has been proven in various studies to help reduce even the moderate to advanced stages of cancers and helps in the prevention of liver, prostate, and other cancers of the body (3–5).[14],[15],[16] Raspberry contains a pigment called beta carotene, currently it can range anywhere from 20% to 80%, it is a lipophilic plant pigment, which is responsible for the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities, it also exhibits cox-2 inhibition, tumor necrosis factor suppression, and RNA expression of lipopolysaccharide. Apart from the beneficial effects (antioxidant activity), certain studies have also shown that excess amount of lycopene show pro-oxidative effects. Also, rare studies of raspberry ketone have shown certain cardiotoxicity and reproductive problems.[17],[18],[19]

Green tea is a variety of cured tea that is “nonfermented,” it is produced by drying and steaming the fresh leaves. Catechin which is found in green tea is called epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), catechins help to prevent cell damage and provide other beneficial effects. Tea when taken at hot temperature might have a good scavenging effect when compared with cold supplements.[20],[21],[22]


   Materials and Methods Top


Materials used

The materials used in this study were lycopene 10%, raspberry 25%, green tea (95% polyphenols), and silver nanoparticles which were obtained from verified biomaterials suppliers. The extracts were subjected to anti-inflammatory testing using bovine serum albumin (BSA) assay and anti-inflammatory testing using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) assay.

Synthesis of herbal formulation

The herbal extracts of lycopene (25%), raspberry (10%), and green tea (95%) and silver nanoparticles (0.016 gm) were mixed with 100 mL distilled water which was boiled at 50°C for 30 min, the concentrated extract was then subjected to anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory testing [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Showing herbal extract containing lycopene, raspberry, green tea, and silver nanoparticles

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.

Anti-inflammatory testing

The lycopene, raspberry, and green tea, and silver nanoparticlesherbal formulation was subject to bovine serum albumin assay (BSA). The solution was set to five different concentrations of 10 μL, 20 μL, 30 μL, 40 μL, and 50 μL in a solution containing 1 mL of BSA, the solution was maintained at room temperature for 10 min, this was followed by boiling of the contents at 55°C for 10–15 min, this solution was then subjected to spectrophotometry for inhibition level analysis [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Anti-inflammatory activity of herbal formulation containing lycopene, raspberry, green tea, and silver nanoparticles

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Antioxidant testing

The lycopene, green tea, and raspberry extracts, and silver nano particle formulation was subjected to anti-oxidant testing using DPPH assay. The formulation was then set to five different concentrations of 10 μL, 20 μL, 30 μL, 40 μL, 50 μL in a solution containing 2 mL of DPPH, the solution was then kept for incubation for about 15–20 min (dark incubation), these 5 samples were then further subjected spectrophotometry and analyzed for inhibition levels [Figure 3].
Figure 3: Anti-oxidant activity of herbal formulation containing lycopene, raspberry, green tea, and silver nanoparticles

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The standard with which the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory activity was compared in this study was commercially available antibiotic – Amoxicillin (the dosage amount of the reference standard was the same as the comparison for each level of dose)

The study was approved by the Research Review Board with reference No. SAV/M/2020012, dated 01/12/2020.


   Results Top


The results of this study show that the combination of lycopene, raspberry, and green tea extract with silver nanoparticles had a better percentage of inhibition by both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays analysis. Spectrophotometry analysis of antioxidant assay revealed that 50 μL of the herbal formulation with silver nanoparticles had the highest absorption percentage of about 93.15% [Figure 2], whereas the anti-inflammatory assay revealed that 50 μL has absorption percentage of about 92.9% [Figure 3] when compared to the reference standard (Amoxicillin).


   Discussion Top


A study by Zhao et al. (2002) showed that about 95% of the inhibitory activity was seen between 350 and 900 nm, which is also similar to our study wherein at 517 nm the highest inhibition percentage was seen.[1],[23],[24],[25],[26] However, in a study by Akufumi et al. (2018) a combination of beta carotene and lycopene did not show an anti-oxidant activity which is in contrast to the current study.[3],[27],[28] A study by Mallery et al.[29] showed that raspberry extract showed a reduction in premalignant lesions and oxidant activity indicating its better inhibition activity, which is also in line with our study.[4] A study by Bignotto et al. showed that lycopene has a high significant antioxidant property at a dose of 25 mg/kg, reducing the risk of cancer and also the anti-inflammatory action in which the injury to the liver cells reduced the pain with a VAS of less than 5,[30],[31] whereas in our study, the anti-oxidant efficacy of lycopene infused with silver nano particles was about more than 90% at dosage levels of 50 uL, which is the highest among the studies done with lycopene or other combination of herbal formulations.[21],[32],[33],[34] Whereas a study done by Padmavathy et al. revealed that nanoparticles–based formulation has good sustainability (sustained-release), more patients compliance (less irritation), ease of administration, and good retention properties. Although this was an in vitro study, in-situ gel studies done using lycopene and raspberry has shown less adverse effects and more patients compliance in comparison to chemical-based or commercially-based topical gels or ointments.[35],[36],[37] A study by Aparna et al. showed that the combination of silver nanoparticles can cause capping of Piper nigrum leading to increased anti-inflammatory action.[38]

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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