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 Table of Contents  
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 29  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 295-299

A Two-Year Prospective Analysis of Mandibular Fractures in Western Population of Maharashtra, India

1 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, School of Dental Sciences, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University, Karad, Maharashtra, India
2 Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Sciences, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University, Karad, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dental Sciences, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University, Karad, Maharashtra, India

Date of Submission23-May-2017
Date of Acceptance24-Jan-2018
Date of Web Publication15-Feb-2018

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Ashwinirani Suragimath
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, School of Dental Sciences, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University, Karad - 415 110, Maharashtra
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jiaomr.jiaomr_47_17

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Introduction: Trauma to the facial region causes injuries to hard and soft tissues of the face. Injuries to the maxillofacial region are increasing in frequency and severity because of the increased number of road traffic accidents (RTAs) and increased number of violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate age, gender distribution, etiology, and pattern of mandibular fractures in Western part of Maharashtra population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology for a period of two years from June 2013 to June 2015. Clinical examination of all trauma patients was done and diagnosis was made based on signs, clinical features, and confirmed by orthopantomographs. Results: Totally, 193 patients were detected with different types of mandibular fractures. Study group involved 77.2% males and 22.8% females with a male to female ratio of 3.3:1. Majority of patients were in the age group of 21–30 years followed by 31–40 years. Trauma due to RTAs were more common followed by assaults and fall. Parasymphyseal fractures were most common type followed by condylar fracture and fracture of angle of mandible. Conclusion: Males were most commonly affected by trauma than females with a predominant age group of 21–30 years. Majority of trauma were due to RTAs with parasymphyseal as most common type of fracture.

Keywords: Condyle, mandible, maxillofacial trauma, parasymphyseal

How to cite this article:
Suragimath A, Suragimath G, Kumar M. A Two-Year Prospective Analysis of Mandibular Fractures in Western Population of Maharashtra, India. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2017;29:295-9

How to cite this URL:
Suragimath A, Suragimath G, Kumar M. A Two-Year Prospective Analysis of Mandibular Fractures in Western Population of Maharashtra, India. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol [serial online] 2017 [cited 2022 Aug 18];29:295-9. Available from: https://www.jiaomr.in/text.asp?2017/29/4/295/225557

   Introduction Top

Maxillofacial (MF) regions include maxillary, mandibular, nasal, orbital, zygomatic, and ethmoid bones. Maxillary region consists of bony components of the hard palate and alveolar process, while the mandibular region consists of mandible and the temporomandibular joint. Trauma is a type of injury where external force is being applied suddenly and violently at the body which causes a serious injury.[1] MF trauma is often associated with morbidity, physical, functional, and esthetic damage.

The incidence and epidemiological causes of MF trauma and facial fractures vary widely in different regions of the world due to social, economical, cultural consequences, awareness of traffic regulations, and alcohol consumption. Injuries to the MF region are increasing in frequency and severity because of increased number of vehicles with increased number of road traffic accidents (RTAs), improper roads in developing countries, and increasing socioeconomic activities of the population.[2]

Studies in developed countries showed assault as the leading cause of facial fractures followed mostly by motor vehicle accidents, pedestrian collisions, stumbling, sports and industrial accidents, but in underdeveloped or developing areas of the world, the leading cause was RTAs followed by assaults and other reasons.[3],[4],[5],[6],[7],[8],[9] The present study was designed to analyze the age, gender distribution, etiology, and patterns of mandibular fractures using orthopantomogram (OPG) in western part of Maharashtra population.

   Materials and Methods Top

The study was carried out in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, School of Dental Sciences, Krishna Institute of Medical Sciences Deemed University, Maharashtra, India. Ethical clearance was obtained before commencing the study. Patients reporting to the department with a chief complaint of trauma were included in the study for a period of two years from June 2013 to June 2015. The study participants were explained about the objectives of the study and an informed consent was obtained before enrolling them in the study.

Clinical examination was done using mouth mirror and probe. Patients with mandibular fractures were included in the study. The diagnosis of a fracture was based on the history, signs and symptoms, visual finding, manual examination, and OPG radiographs. Exact determination of site and pattern of bony injury was determined by correlating it radiographically using OPG. All OPGs were captured using Xtropan 2000 system (Xtronics Imaging Systems, Mumbai, India, tube potential: 50–85 kV, tube current: 12 mA, and time: 14 s) using Carestream (T-Mat GIRA) films. The magnification factor reported by the manufacturer was 1.2.

In our study, the mandible was divided into condylar, coronoid, angle, body, symphyseal, parasymphyseal, ramus, and dentoalveolar regions. The etiological factors were classified as RTAs, fall from height, assaults, sport injuries, and miscellaneous. Soft tissue lacerations were not recorded. Age, gender, etiology, and pattern of mandibular fractures were recorded in clinical proforma. The data recorded were entered in MS Excel sheet and subjected to statistical analysis using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences IBM SPSS Statistics for windows. Version 20.0. (Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.).

   Results Top

Gender-wise distribution of patients

A total of 193 patients with mandibular fractures were recorded. Out of 193 patients, 149 (77.2%) were males and 44 (22.8%) were females. Males sustained significantly more injuries as compared to females, with an overall ratio of 3.3:1 [Table 1].
Table 1: Gender-wise distribution of patients

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Age-wise distribution of fractures

Majority of fractures were seen in the age group of 21–30 (35.2%) years followed by 31–40 years (30.5%) of life, constituting a major proportion (65.7%). In patients aged above 61, there was less incidence of fractures that accounts for only 4.1% [Table 2].
Table 2: Age-wise distribution of fractures

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Site-wise distribution of fractures

Among 193 total fractures, 96 fractures were present on right side and 84 fractures were present on left side [Table 3].
Table 3: Site-wise distribution of mandibular fractures

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Gender-wise distribution of different types of mandibular fractures

Mandibular fractures occurred most commonly in the parasymphyseal region, about 61 cases (31.6%), followed by condylar region about 47 cases (24.3%). The third most common site for fracture was angle, about 25 cases (12.9%), followed by body, accounting for 22 cases (11.3%), dentoalveolar, and symphysis fractures. The least common fractures reported were coronoid fractures (2%) and ramus fractures (1.5%) [Table 4] and [Figure 1][Figure 2][Figure 3][Figure 4][Figure 5][Figure 6].
Figure 1: Diffuse swelling on right middle and lower third of face with reduced mouth opening. OPG showing right angle left parasymphyseal and condylar fracture

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Figure 2: OPG showing right condylar fracture with bilateral body fractures

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Figure 3: Bilateral condylar fracture with symphyseal fracture

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Figure 4: OPG showing left coronoid and right body fractures

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Figure 5: OPG showing fractures of right angle and left body of mandible

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Figure 6: OPG showing bilateral coronoid fractures with right body and angle fractures

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Table 4: Gender-wise distribution of different types of mandibular fractures

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Etiology for mandibular fractures

Fractures due to RTAs were most common (62.6%), followed by assaults 16%, falls 13.9%, sport injuries and miscellaneous fractures constituted for low rates [Table 5].
Table 5: Etiology for mandibular fractures

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   Discussion Top

Trauma is the leading cause of deaths that occurred in the first 40 years of life. In polytrauma victims, MF injuries are frequently seen. RTAs are most common causes of trauma due to rapid increase in the number of vehicles. The country has world's highest fatality rate in RTAs, 20 times that of developed countries. In India, eight people get killed for every 100 vehicles, whereas in developed countries such as UK, USA, and France, one person gets killed for every 1,000 vehicles.[10]

Incidence and etiology of MF traumas have been carried out in countries such as Austria,[11] Germany,[12] New Zealand,[13] and United Arab Emirates.[14] Few studies from India were also found in literature.[2],[15] Most of the studies considered entire fractures in MF region, but in our study we had considered only mandibular fractures because OPGs show mandibular fractures more clearly than mid-facial fractures.


Mandible being the most prominent bone in face is often fractured more than the strongly supported middle-third of the face. Various studies conducted previously by Veeresha and Shankararadhya,[16] Motamedi,[9] Ortakoglu [17]et al., and Lone et al.[18] have also found mandibular fractures more common than maxillary fractures.


The mandibular fractures were higher in males than in females with a ratio of 3.3:1 in our study, which was consistent with previous literature.[18],[19] Males are at greater risk due to their greater participation in activities such as driving vehicles, sports that involve physical contact, an active social life, and use of drugs such as alcohol. In Middle East countries, male to female ratios varies from 4.5:1 to 11:1.[9],[20] This greater proportion variation may be due to segregation of women from social life in these countries. Due to change in women's social behavior, increased percentage of working population either for office activities or day-to-day home activities such as for vegetable or groceries shopping, and for leaving their kids for school and tuitions, females showed increased prevalence of trauma than males.[21]


Majority of mandibular fractures in our study occurred in the age group of 21–30 years (35.2%), followed by 31–40 years (30.5%) and 11–20 years (11.3%). The results were in accordance with the previous studies.[21],[22] The high incidence of fractures in second and third decades of life might be due to the facts that people belonging to this decade are more active, majority are college-going students who are learners of vehicle driving, careless driving on roads, energetic, take active participation in dangerous exercises and sports activities, and mostly involved in violence. Patients aged above 60 years had less fractures because this age group is less involved in outdoor activities, which was in accordance with a previous study.[23]

RTAs were the main cause of fractures in our study, which accounted for 62.6% followed by assaults 16% and falls 13.9%, which was in accordance with other Indian and international studies.[9],[24],[25] The increasing number of RTAs in developing countries such as India is due to conditions of roads, inadequate road safety awareness, increased number of two wheelers, non-usage of seat belts or helmets, breaking of highway rules, use of mobile phones while driving, and use of alcohol and driving. Assaults have been reported as the main cause of MF injuries in countries such as United States, Finland, and Switzerland.[26] In the present study, assaults were the second most prevalent etiological factor (16%).

In the present study, parasymphyseal fracture was most common type followed by condylar, angle, and body. Accidents from vehicles resulted in greater number of parasymphysis and condylar fractures as traffic accident victims commonly suffer posteriorly directed force to mandible as a result of fall. The results of our study with site distribution were consistent with other studies.[9],[18]

   Conclusion Top

Majority of mandibular fractures were in parasympyseal and condylar region due to RTAs with higher frequency in males. Mandatory use of helmet and seat belts may reduce the RTAs.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

   References Top

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  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6]

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5]


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