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Year : 2009  |  Volume : 21  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 46-49 Table of Contents   

Transmigration of mandibular canine: A case report and review of literature

Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, B.V.U.D.C, Pune, India

Date of Web Publication14-Nov-2009

Correspondence Address:
Shivayogi Charantimath
Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, B.V.U.D.C, Pune
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/0972-1363.57779

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Transmigration of mandibular permanent canine is a rare event, the etiology of which is not clear. Pre-eruptive migration of a tooth across the midline is termed "transmigration. Here we present a case report. The literature on this rare condition is reviewed, its etiological possibilities are discussed.

Keywords: Canine, transmigration

How to cite this article:
Charantimath S. Transmigration of mandibular canine: A case report and review of literature. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2009;21:46-9

How to cite this URL:
Charantimath S. Transmigration of mandibular canine: A case report and review of literature. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol [serial online] 2009 [cited 2022 Aug 8];21:46-9. Available from: https://www.jiaomr.in/text.asp?2009/21/1/46/57779

   Introduction Top

Failure of eruption of the mandibular canine is an unusual event. Grover and Larton found 11 mandibular canines on 5000 individuals. [1]

An unerupted tooth occasionally migrates to a location some distance away from the side in which it developed but it usually remains within the same side of the arch.

The movement of an unerupted canine across the dental midline is unusual and therefore worthy of investigation. Tarsitino et al. described this anomaly as transmigration or movement of an unerupted tooth across the midline without the influence of any pathologic entity. [3] Because this phenomenon is so rare, it was thought that this case of canine transmigration across the mandibular midline observed at the B.V.U.D. College Pune merited reporting.

   Case Report Top

A healthy 14-year-old male patient reported to the Department of Oral Medicine, Diagnosis and Radiology with the chief compliant of mobility of teeth in the lower front region of the jaw since one week.

Intraoral examination revealed retained deciduous canine in the third quadrant [Figure 2] with Grade I mobility. An intraoral periapical radiograph was advised which showed impacted canine and radiolucency with defined corticated border around the crown situated in relation to 43, 44 as seen in [Figure 3].

An orthopantomograph was advised to determine the placement of impacted canine, which revealed horizontally impacted canine (33), at the root apices of canine and premolar (43,44). A well-defined radiolucency around the crown with defined corticated border extending from the cemento-enamel junction and crossing the midline as seen in [Figure 4]. was observed.

Further occlusal radiograph was taken which confirmed labially placed canine and expansion of buccal cortical plate as seen in [Figure 5].

Based on clinical examination and radiological features, provisional diagnosis of transmigration of mandibular canine with cyst was given.

   Discussion Top

Displacement of an unerupted tooth is not an uncommon occurrence and the tooth most frequently malposed in the dental arch is the maxillary canine but the displacement of mandibular canine is uncommon and its transmigration across the midline to the opposite side is extremely rare because of embryonic sutural closures. [4]

Mupparappu [5] used five criteria to classify the transmigrated canine. These are summarized as follows.

Type I: The canine is impacted mesioangularily across the midline, labially or lingual to the anterior teeth with the crown partition of the tooth crossing the midline.

Type II: The canine is horizontally impacted near the inferior border of the mandible below the apices of the incisors.,

Type III: The canine has erupted either mesial or distal to the opposite canine.

Type IV: The canine is horizontally impacted near the inferior border of the mandible below the apices of either the premolar or molars on the opposite side.

Type V: The canine is positioned vertically in the midline with the long axis of the tooth crossing the midline.

Etiology of transmigration of mandibular canine

The etiology and exact mechanism of transmigration is still not clear, although a number of factors have been suggested. Tumors, cyst, and odontomos may cause malposition of teeth if they lie in the path of eruption of teeth. Other factors suggested by some authors as possible etiological factors are premature loss of deciduous teeth, retention of deciduous canine, crowding, spacing, supernumerary teeth and excessive, length of the crown of mandibular canines. [1],[3]

Howard observed that those unerupted canines that lie between 25 0 and 30 0 in the midsagittal plane do not migrate across the mandibular midline. Those canine between 300 and 950 tend to cross the midline. An overlap appears to exist between 300 and 500 when the angle exceeds 500, crossing the midline becomes a rule. [6]

Javid, Joshi and Shetye suggested that the cause of transmigration may be an abnormally strong eruption force which drives the canine through the dense symphysis. They also noted that the conical shape of the teeth aids its passage through the bone, [2],[9],[13]

Thoma [8] , Fiedler and Alling. [13] reported cases in which a radiolucent area resembling a cystic lesion surrounded the transmigrated canine. However, it is difficult to say whether these pathological conditions were responsible for the transmigration or whether the pathological condition occurred after the migration of canine.

Vechi and Frenchi [9] suggested that agenesis of the adjacent teeth, in particular the lateral incisor, may favor retention of the primary canine and that the excess space in the dental arch may account for the absence of a correct guide for eruption. They observed proclination of the lower incisors, increased axial inclination of the unerupted canine and an enlarged symphyseal cross-sectional area of the chin in nearly all their cases. They suggested that these factors could play an important role in

Alaejsos Algarra et al. stated that canine tooth germs are located further from the normal site of eruption than are germs of other teeth. An anomalous portion of the tooth germ may also be involved in the pathogenesis of canine transmigration. [10]

Although the migration of teeth is a well-recognized phenomenon transmigration of mandibular canine is rare and not many cases are reported with pathology. However, in this case, transmigration of canine was associated with cyst.This was in accordence to Thoma, who reported cases with radiolucent area resembling a cystic lesion surrounding the transmigrated canine. [8] In the present case the canine had migrated to the right side and was lying horizontally near the inferior border of mandible below the root apices of the canine and premolars, crossing the midline, which is in Type II category

Mitchel and Nixon [11] and Lowely presented reports of cases in which the probable etiology of the displacement of a lower canine was a mandibular fracture through the developing crypt.

Peck [12] cited the role of genetics in the etiology of ectopic mandibular canine. He noted bilateral occurrence and the elevated occurrence of hypodontia and palatally displaced canines in the 12 cases of Vichi and Frenchi. according to Mupparapu's classification of transmigrated canine.

In our case, the patient was asymptomatic although a cystic lining was present in the radiograph which was in accordance with the study done by Al-wahedi who suggested that transmigrated canines are usually associated with a cystic lesion and that the presence of a cyst at the crown of the canine may facilitate the migration process.

As in our case the transmigration of canine was associated with cystic lining surgical extraction with enucleation of cyst was advised rather than a heroic effort to bring the tooth back to its original place.

It is advised that, if deciduous canines do not exfoliate in time, it is mandatory to determine the position of the developing permanent canines radiographically and if a slight change in the direction of the tip of mandibular canine is detected, the prompt removal of deciduous canine may be carried out to encourage its eruption in its normal position.

   Summary Top

A case of transmigration of mandibular canine with cystic change is reported. Early extraction of over-retained deciduous canine to prevent malpositioning of permanent canine and early radiological evaluation of position of developing permanent canine before occurrence of any pathology with surgical orthodontic management to prevent transmigration are suggested.[Figure 1]

   References Top

1.Pinar Sumer A,Ozden B,Otan F. Transmigration of mandibular canines: A report of six cases and a review of the Literature. J Contemp Dent Pract 2007;March(8)3:104-110  Back to cited text no. 1      
2.Joshi MR. Shetye SB. Transmigration Mandibular canine:A review of the literature and report of two cases. Quitessance Int 1994;25:291-294  Back to cited text no. 2      
3.Taristino JJ. Burelette JT. Transmigration of erupted mandibular canines Report of cases J Am Dent Associated 1971;82:1395-7.  Back to cited text no. 3      
4.Simon Camilleri.Transmigration of Mandibular canine - A review of the Literature and a report of five cases. Angle Ortodontist 2003;Vol 73,N0 6,753-762  Back to cited text no. 4      
5.Mupparapu M. Patterns of intra-osseous transmigration of mandibular canines, review of literature and a report of nine additional cases Dento Radio 1 2002;31:355-60.  Back to cited text no. 5      
6.Howard RD. The anomalous mandibular canine. British Jr Orthod 1976;3:117-21  Back to cited text no. 6      
7.Javid B. Transmigration of impacted mandibular cuspid Int J. Oral surgery. 1985;14: 547-549.  Back to cited text no. 7      
8.Thoma KH. Oral Surgery. 5 th ed. St Louis, Miss: CV Mosby; 1969;54-55.   Back to cited text no. 8      
9.Vichi M Franchi L. Transmigration of the permanent lower canine. Minerva Stomatol. 1991;40:579-89.  Back to cited text no. 9      
10.Alaejos-Algarra C, Berini-Aytes L, Gay-Escoda C. Transmigration of mandibular canines: report of six cases and review of the literature. Quintessence Int. 1998:29:395-398.   Back to cited text no. 10      
11.Mitchell Displacement of a mandibular canine following fracture of the mandibule. Br. Dent J 1993;174:417-8.  Back to cited text no. 11      
12.Peck S. On the phenomenon of intraosseous migration of non erupting teeth. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 1998;113:515-7.  Back to cited text no. 12  [PUBMED]  [FULLTEXT]  
13.Fiedler LD, Alling CC. Malpositioned mandibular right canine; report of case J Oral surg. 1968;26:405-407.  Back to cited text no. 13      


  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5]

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